Minhast

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Introduction

Minhast (Minhast min kirim, lit. "Minhast-speak") is the spoken language of the Republic of Minhay, with a robust speech community of nearly 26 million people, approximately one million of them living in expatriate communities, with the largest concentrations residing in the U.S., Xayda, Mexico, the Middle East, Kallaxwanpūr, and Canada. Significant numbers also exist in Southeast Asia and Norhern Europe. It is divided into two major dialects, Upper Minhast and Lower Minhast, each of which is divided into several smaller subdialects, such as the Salmon Speaker variant of the Upper Minhast dialect, and the Osprey Speaker variant of the Lower Minhast dialect.

Located just 1,232 km from northeast Japan, this Northeast Asian language has no known relatives and bears few if any similarities with Japanese and its two other nearest neighbors, the Kingdom of Kogureo (Korea) and the Ainu Democratic Federation (Ainushir). Two other languages in the island nation, Peshpeg and Golahat, both of which are moribund, are also unrelated; any similarities existing between the two languages and Minhast are due to areal features, with Minhast as the dominant influence. Linguists have investigated possible relationships with the Altaic, Paleosiberian, and Native North American languages, but so far have failed to find any conclusive evidence. Therefore, Minhast remains classified as a language isolate.

Typologically, Minhast is an ergative, polysynthetic language. Verbal morphology is highly aggluginative and performs noun incorporation and other complex valence operations. Unmarked word order is SOV. Ergativity surfaces both at the morphologic and syntactic levels. Both its ergative and polysynthetic characteristics have generated much academic research in comparative and theoretical linguistics.


Dialectology

Minhast is divided into two major dialects. Upper Minhast, which is centered in the highlands of Kilmay Rī, Ešked (Ekšed), and Attum Attar; the northeastern coastal prefectures of Iskamharat and Perim-Sin; and the National Capital Region, consisting of Āš-min-Gāl, Ankussūr, Huruk, Nammadīn, and Kered. Lower Minhast is spoken mainly in the southeastern coastal prefectures of Neskud, Yaxparim, Senzil, and Rēgum. The two dialects differ chiefly in phonetics and the lexicon, with Lower Minhast containing loanwords from neighboring languages (e.g. Golahat). Otherwise, the two dialects are mutually intelligible. Nevertheless, it is Upper Minhast that is the standardized form of the language, used in government, commerce, and the media.

Additionally, the two dialects are divided into several smaller dialects. The major subdialects of Upper Minhast include the Salmon Speakers of the "Gaššarat" (Northeastern Coast), the Dog Speakers of the "Hisašarum" (The Northeastern Plains), the Horse Speakers of the "Gannasia" (The Central Plateau), and the Knife Speakers (Lesser Plateau Prefecture). Lower Minhast consists of the Gull Speakers (Senzil and Rēgum Prefectures), the Osprey Speakers (Kings' Bay), and the Stone Speakers of the southernmost prefectures (Neskud and Yaxparim).

Two new dialects have arisen in the National Capital Region (NCR). One is Modern Standard Minhast, a variant of Upper Minhast that serves as the standard dialect used for government, commerce, and media. The second dialect, known as Modern Colloquial Minhast, is admixture of several subdialects from both Upper and Lower Minhast. Spoken mostly by people in their 30's and earlier, it contains more loanwords from foreign languages than the standard language, especially in areas of technology and the Internet, and from foreign films and media. This new dialect is replete with slang and nonstandard jargon that is often looked down upon by older generations.

The following grammatical sketch is a description primarily of Modern Standard Minhast. Examples from other Minhast dialects, or from Old or Classical Minhast will be noted as appropriate.

Phonology

Phonemic Inventory

The following chart contains the consonants in the Minhast phonology. The Minhast Latinized alphabet is derived from the Americanist system and is used throughout this article. Where Americanist and IPA symbols diverge, the IPA version is indicated by the IPA syllable surrounded by two forward slashes. Allophones which are not represented in the standard orthography are indicated by the appropriate IPA symbol surrounded by the forward slashes, which are in turn surrounded by parentheses, e.g. "(/tʃ/)".


Minhast Consonantal Inventory
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal Laryngeal Pharyngeal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f s z ʃ ƹ χ ʔ h ħ
Affricates t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximants w j
Trill r
Lateral Approximant l


Template:Minhast Vowels IPA



Short Long Devoiced
a ā (ạ)
e ē (ẹ)
i ī (ị)
u ū (ụ)

Syllabic Structure and Phonemic Interactions

Minhast words are subject to complex morphophonemic changes resulting from interactions with other morphemes occurring in the word. The verb is particularly complex in the various sound changes that may occur as a result of noun incorporation as well as the aggluginative processes involved in conjugation or other inflectional processes. These phonemic changes can be broken down according to the following classifications:

  • Assimilation
  • Metathesis
  • Syncope
  • Epenthesis
  • Voicing/Devoicing

These complex morphophonemic interactions operate according to the general phonological principals outlined below:

  1. No syllable can have a consonant cluster of more than two consonants. Syncope can be applied only if a biconsonantal cluster is formed, and the vowel is not a part of a heavy syllable (i.e. the vowel is long, or it occurs in a VCC sequence).
  2. No Minhast word can have an initial consonant cluster. After any initial consonant cluster results from one or more of the possible morphophonemic alternations described below, an epenthetic is automatically appended to the head of the word to form the permissible iCC- pattern.
  3. An epenthetic vowel is always inserted between two syllables if combining the syllables results in a triconsonantal cluster. The default epenthetic vowel is -i-, but the other 3 vowels may also be used, depending on multiple factors (e.g. vowel harmony, an underlying quiescent initial vowel as part of the attached morpheme, etc.)
  4. Minhast has a strong tendency to form intermedial clusters, either or , providing that Rules #1-#3 are observed. If necessary, an epenthetic vowel may be added before or after the syllable to create these syllabic patterns, e.g. e.g. kanut-maris-kar- >> -kant-(u)-maris-kar
  5. The tendency to form intermedial consonant clusters creates complex assimilation interactions that nevertheless are predictable and almost always regular. These interactions are illustrated in Table X below: Template:Minhast Phonotactics Template
  6. Vowels are classified according to a "weak-strong" gradient, where the "strong" vowels are more resistant to syncope than neighboring "weak(er)" vowels. All long vowels are by definition "strong", so the weak-strong gradient really applies to short vowels: Table X: Vowel Gradients In Order of Increasing Strength

  7. The shape of a -CVCVC- syllable may contract either to a -CCVC- or -CVCC- pattern, depending on the strength gradients of the vowels with respect to one another. The -CaCaC- syllable pattern is the only one that does not contract. Syllables consisting of the same vowels may appear in either -CCVC- or -CVCC- patterns; the pattern they resolve to is influenced by interactions from surrounding syllables. These contractions are summarized in the following table:
    Initial Pattern Final Contraction
    -CaCaC- (no change)
    -CaCuC-

    -CaCeC-
    -CaCiC-

    -CaCC-
    -CuCaC-

    -CeCaC-
    -CiCaC-

    -CCaC-
    -CuCuC-

    -CuCeC-
    -CuCiC-

    -CuCC-
    -CuCuC-

    CeCuC-
    -CiCuC-

    -CCuC-
    -CeCeC-

    -CeCiC-

    -CeCC-
    -CeCeC-

    -CiCeC-

    -CCeC-
    -CiCiC- -CCiC-

    -CiCC-

  8. A verb root or an incorporated noun tends to lose one or more vowels to form at least one biconsonant cluster. The vowel that is lost depends on its strength gradient in relation to the noun of the neighboring syllable.
  9. With the exception of pattern -CaCa-, when two adjoining syllables have vowels within the same gradient, vocalic syncope resolves to CVCC.
  10. The pattern (C)VVCC always resolves to (C)VCC
  11. Compared to nominal and verbal roots, inflectional morphemes (e.g. theme, aspect, tense, person, etc) are resistant to syncope because this may lead to the inflectional morpheme to be changed beyond recognition. For example,-šp-irak- he informed (him) (lit. "he caused him to know") does not resolve to -šip-rak-, even though this would prevent the impermissible CCV pattern from occurring. Instead, an epenthetic vowel is added before the causative affix to prevent this impermissible consonant cluster from occurring.
  12. Although inflectional morphemes do not experience syncope, they still may experience phonological changes in the form of metathesis and devoicing.
  13. Vowel devoicing occurs in CVħC, CVxC, CVsC, or CVC syllables, where C is any of the unvoiced consonants listed in Table X.
  14. Two consecutive syllables with the pattern CVħCVħ resolves to CVCCVħ, due to the difficulty of pronouncing the allophone in two consecutive closed syllables. Additionally, the vowel in the previous syllable may be devoiced if its adjacent consonants are voiceless, as in Example A, where the verb root vowel -a- which occurs the voiceless consonants -k- and -h- devoices to -ạ-. Note also the epenthetic vowel -i- appearing between the verb root and the 1st person incl. pl. affix ,-ħk- e.g.: nattiħkemkaraban >> *naħtiħkemaraban >> *naħt-hkem-ar-ab-an "We were (being) annoying" (lit.: annoying-we.and.you-[past]-[ imperf.]-[intrans]) nekạħtikemaraban >> *nekạħtịħkemaraban >> *nekạħt-ħkem-ar-ab-an "I was avoiding..."
  15. Dissimilation occurs in CVC-patterns involving š-Vš, resolving to s-Vš. A prime example is the number "twenty", e.g.*šan-šentāz >> *san-šentāz > > saššentāz
  16. Dissimilation occurs in CVC-patterns involving mVm, resolving to nVm.

Nouns

Gender, Number, and Case Marking

1) Gender: All nouns have an intrinsic gender; interestingly, some nouns may have multiple genders, each gender conveying different meanings; these should be considered separate lexical entities. However, nouns are not inflected or marked by gender affixes or clitics. Instead, cross-reference affixes in the verb identify the gender of the nouns that serve as core arguments of a clause; in contrast, oblique argument, however, do not receive any marking. Thus, gender of each noun must be memorized in order to choose the correct verbal affix, or to identify the gender of a noun serving as an oblique argument.

2) Number: Nouns do not inflect for number. Verbal cross-reference affixes (see section below on verbal Pronominal Affixes) can mark number on Ergative and Absolutive noun phrases, but do not provide any information about number for non-core NPs. Speakers must rely on context or use numbers in a min construction using the formula [number + min + NP], e.g. “šānī min redad” (i.e. “two man”) to mark plurality; otherwise the default number is singular.

3) Case: Although nouns are not overtly marked for gender or number by inflection or clitics, they do take case marking clitics that attach to the end of the noun or noun phrase. There are two core nominal arguments: the Absolutive which receives zero marking, and the Ergative clitic =de. The Genitive derives from the same =de clitic as the Ergative, and in most declension tables are thus listed as the Ergative-Genitive case. However, there are several allomorphs which are explained in the section “Allomorphs of the Ergative-Genitive” where the Ergative and the Genitive diverge in shape.

Allomorphs of the Ergative/Genitive Clitic =de
Resulting Form
Preceding Phoneme(s) Ergative Genitive Genitive + Ergative
(V)V, g, z =de =de =de
l,r, n =de =t =te
f, p,k, x, s, š,h =te =t =te
m =be =t =te
b =mbe =pt =pte
d =e =te,=tide =te,=tide
t =te, =tide =te =te,=tide
C1C2 =e,=ide =e =e
nk, ng =ide =ide =ide
CC =e,=ide =ide =e,=ide

Additionally, there are seven basic Oblique case clitics to non-core NP arguments, plus a few others that are rare or have fallen out of use, such as the Inessive =kīr/=kir. Most of the Oblique clitics have two forms, one form with a short medial vowel, and the other with a long medial vowel. Use of both forms are acceptable, but native speakers tend to use the clitics with short vowels when the clitic is preceded by a long vowel, while the converse is true for the clitics forms with long vowels.

Common Postpositional Affixes
Case Postposition
Dative =(a)ran
Benefactive =nī, =ni
Ablative =yār, =yar
Locative =kī, =ki
Instrumental =pār, =par
Commitative =kān,=kan
Malefactive =daħ, =dāš

Noun Classes

Nouns are divided into three classes based on the syllabic pattern of the final syllable of the noun. The Class I nouns (also known as “Strong Stem” nouns) are those whose Absolutive forms end in a single consonant, or a short vowel. Additions of a short-vowel clitic do not change the noun stem's final vowel. The rules of vowel apocopation, however, still apply.

Class II nouns are divided into three subtypes, with Absolutive forms ending with the glides -ea, -ia, or -ua. Class II nouns undergo a morphophonemic process whereby the final -a of the noun stem is dropped and the preceding vowel is automatically lengthened when either a short or a long-vowel case clitic is attached to the noun stem. Additionally, during noun incorporation the entire glide is elided. Examples are as follows for marua, yarea, and simmia, meaning “the 'star' Venus”, “young girl”, and “moonless night”, respectively.

Class III nouns all terminate with either a consonant cluster or gemminate consonnants. If the following clitic that attaches to it has a quiescent vowel, such as the Dative clitic =(a)ran, the quiescent vowel resurfaces to prevent an impermissible CCC pattern, or the epenthetic vowels -i­- or -e- is inserted. An additional feature is that these nouns will select the long-vowel forms of case clitics if they do exist.

These nouns are contrasted against the Class I noun gal (“horse”).

Noun Classes
Absolutive Pre-clitic Form Incorporated Form Examples Meaning
Class I gal gal=

-gal-

galde, galyār horse
Class II marua marū=

-mar-

marūde, marūpar the "star" Venus
yarea yarē=

-yar-

yarēde, yarēran young girl
simmia simmī=

-simm-

simmīde, simmīkan moonless night
Class III asr asr-, asre-

-asr-

asride, asrenī
niss niss-,nisse-

-niss-

nisside, nissekī

Interrogative Pronouns

English Minhast
Who šikk, darad
What bak
Which ādan min; * ādam
When sippan, sippamey
Why širekka, bakran
Where at nakkī
Where to, whither nakran
Where from, whence nakyar
At which location nakkīdān
From which location nakkīdanyār
To which location nakkīdarran
How many/how much bitakku



Quantifier Substantive Attributive
All rea rem

suppī min
sumpī min

Most šie šim
Some rem azarim

ikyem
wakkī min

Many san sam
Both šani šanim
Each uššumī uššumīm
Few kattua kattum
Another/Other xani

nexāni

xanim

nexāni min

Pronominal Forms

Minhast Independent and Cliticized Pronominal Forms

Person - Number - Gender Independant Forms Bound Forms
Ergative Absolutive Oblique Stative
1st Sg. yakte yak yak- -ek
2nd Sg. tahte taħ tah-,taħ- -taħ
3rd Masculine - Common Sg. kūde kua kū- -na
3rd Feminine Sg. lēde- lea lē-, ley- -lea
3rd Neuter Animate Sg. šemet šea šē-, šey- -šea
3rd Neuter Inanimate Sg. mēde mea mē-,mey- -mea
Plural
1st Plural Inclusive hakemt(e) hak hak- -hakkem
1st Pl Exclusive nemt(e) nem nem- -nem
2nd Pl. taħtemt(e) taħtem -taħtem -taħtem-
3rd Masc./Common Pl kemt(e) kem kem- -kem
3rd Fem. Pl. wext(e) wexī, weššī wex- (n/a)
3rd Neut. Anim. Pl. sešt(e) seš sešš(i)- -sseš
3rd Neut. Inanim Pl. maħt(e) maħ mah-, maħ- -maħ

Demonstratives

Minhast demonstrative pronouns make a four-way distinction. As attributives, they precede their heads, joined by the connective min to the NP they modify. They may also be cliticized after the NP they modify. The cliticized forms tend to be used in informal speech.

  Independent Attributive Clitic Comments
Absolutive Ergative Absolutive Ergative
Proximal sap sapte sapim, sap min =sap =sapte this one, near the speaker
Medio-proximal nax naxt(e) naxtim =nax =naxt(e) this/that one near the listener
Distal waššī wašt(e) waššim =waš =wašt(e) far from both speaker and listener
Invisible kiryit kirte kiryit min =kirit =kiryit

The personal deictic pronouns are portmanteaus of the interjective demonstrative particles, e.g. eyha (here is), plus the verbal pronominal absolutive affixes, with the exception of the second singular and third masculine singular forms, which appear to be from the clitic stative forms. Other forms are tāra (there next to you), and kāmu/aššak (over there, away from us). An Invisible form does not occur.

Person Proximal Medio-Proximal Distal
1st Sg. eyhak tārak kāmuk/aškak
2nd Sg. ettaħ tartaħ kamtaħ/aššaktaħ
3rd Masculine - Common Sg. ennu tārannu kannu/aššaknu
3rd Feminine Sg. eyhal tāral kāmul/aššakl
3rd Neuter Animate Sg. eyhaš tāraš kāmuš/aššakš
3rd Neuter Inanimate Sg. eyham tāram kāmum/aššakam
1st Plural Inclusive eħħak tarħak kāħmaku/aššaħkak
1st Pl Exclusive eyham tarħam kāħmam/aššaħkam
2nd Pl. ettam tartam kāmtam/aššaktam
3rd Common Pl. eyhakm tārakm kāmukm/aššakukm
3rd Neut. Anim. Pl. eyhi tāri kāmi/aššaki
3rd Neut. Inanim Pl. eyhammaħ tārammaħ kāmmaħ/aššakmaħ

Numbers

Cardinal and ordinal numbers are one of the [two/XX] groups of true adjectives in the Minhast language. Minhast employs a vegisimal, i.e. base-20, counting system. Numeric expressions involve binding the number and modified noun in a specific construct involving the ligature: Both cardinal and ordinal numbers can take possessive pronominal suffixes (see Part III "Syntax - Possession" for discussion of possessive constructs), which then convey "X number of..." in the case of cardinal numbers, and "the Xth one of/among..." for ordinals, e.g.:

Meneħnemš nasxēreħ iŋkunnuħnemaran "Four of us went out there into the forest."
Menhakkem nasxēreħ iŋkunnuħkēmaran "The fourth one among them went into the forest."

The numbers 1-10 even have intransitive verbal forms, meaning "There were X number of us/you/them." The cardinal, ordinal, and verbal forms are summarized below:

Number Cardinal Ordinal Verbal
one šūmi sanannūx, manx -šūmi-an
two šānī šānāx -šān-an-
three duxt duxtāx -duxut-an, -duxt-an
four meneħ menhāx -mene-an, -menh-an
five kaħtam kaħtamāx -katam-an
six silix silxāx -silix-an, -silx-an
seven gelix gilxāx -gelix-an, -gelx-an
eight mun munāx -mun-an
nine karun karnāx -karun-an, -karn-an
ten tazem tazmāx -tazem-an, -tazm-an
eleven šiktāz šiktezāx ----
twelve sen senāx ----
thirteen halk halkāx ----
fourteen duggalk duggalxāx ----
fifteen āš āšāx ----
sixteen neš nešāx ----
seventeen manšat manšatāx ----
eighteen zenat zenatāx ----
nineteen zelkark zelkarkāx ----
twenty šentāz šentezāx ----
twenty-one šentāz-u-šum šentāz-u-manāx ----
twenty-two šentāz-u-šan šentāz-u-šanāx ----
twenty-three šentāz-u-duxt šentāz-u-duxtāx ----
thirty šentāz-u-tazem šentāz-u-tazmāx ----
forty saššentāz saššentezāx ----
fifty saššentāz-u-tazem saššentāz-u-tazmāx ----
sixty duššentāz duššentezāx ----
seventy duššentāz-u-tazem duššentezāx-u-tazmāx ----
eighty meneštazem meneštazmāx ----
ninety meneštazem-u-tazem meneštazmāx-u-tazmāx ----
one hundred gādi gādyāx ----
one thousand gaggādi gaggadyāx ----

Verbs

Minhast possesses a complex grammar, demonstrated in particular by the elaborate polysynthetic morphology of its verbal system. The Minhast verb inflects not only for tense and aspect, but can inflect to indicate mood, modality, causation, potentiality, intensity, and other functions. The verb also possesses a well-developed set of pronominal affixes used to cross-reference the core arguments of a clause. These affixes indicate both gender and number of the nouns they cross-reference, an essential function as Minhast nouns themselves do not have any markings to indicate these two classifications.

Additionally, the verb can carry out three other operations, that of noun incorporation, antipassivation, and applicative formation, used by speakers for discourse purposes such as backgrounding previously established information and for changing the argument structure of the phrase for the purposes of focusing on a particular argument, ensuring that priviledged noun phrases retain their core status, or to employ rhetorical devices. This polysynthetic characteristic can lead to very long verbs that can express an entire sentence. To demonstrate, the English phrase, "You did not even try to get them to reconsider the matter with this evidence" requires only three words in Minhast: "Keman yattah, tašnišpipsaryentinasummatittaharu", meaning literally "To them the evidence, not-try-cause-return-look.at-yet-matter-with-it.you-did." The verb "tašnišpipsaryentinasummatittaharu", which is an individual sentence in its own right, can be parsed to its individual morphemes, yielding "ta-šn-šp-b-sar-yenti-nasum-mat-tittah-ar-u" (neg.-conative-causative-resumptive-look.at-yet- matter-instr.applicative-3rd.inanim.sg.patient/2nd.sg.agent-past-transitive).

Transitivity is determined by the number of core arguments, that is Agent or Patient/Goal. Minhast verbs do not necessarily map to traditional (i.e. Indo-European) notions of transitivity. As an example, the English sentence, "He jumped on the table" is grammatically intransitive. Available to the Minhast verb are both intransitive and transitive mappings: "Zekyaškī nirriekaran" , which is grammatically intransitive, with zekyaš=kī an oblique argument. The same meaning can be expressed transitively when the verb's valence is altered when the locative applicative affix (i)-n(i)- is applied: Zekyaš in-nirrieku.

Types

1) Adjectival 2) State 3) Impersonal 4) Phenomonological 5) Event

Verb Template

1) Negators, Precatives 2) Theme 1 Affixes 3) Applicatives 4) Theme 2 Affixes 5) Verb Stem: Verb-like Derivational Affixes, Root, Noun-like Derivational Affixes, Incorporated Noun 6) Social-Distributional Affixes 7) Pronominal Cross-Reference Affixes 8) Tense-Aspect Markers 9) Post-TA Markers (includes transitivizer, detransitivizer, and nominalizer affixes) 10) Terminals (clause operator affixes, irrealis markers)

Theme 1 Affixes

Theme Affix Meaning Additional Notes
Expective -naš- supposed to, expected to
Desiderative -šak- to desire, wish Other affixes that may occur in this slot are "-xp-" (to enjoy), "-nisp-" (to hate), -"ruxt-" (to like), etc.
Conative -šn- try
Abilitative -mar- can, to be able to
Approximative -ntar- almost Denotes an action that was or is nearly to be carried out.
Potentive -nitt(a)- might, possibly
Causative -šp- to cause, bring about When used with the Privative, become the Negative Causative
Resumptive -b- again
Intensive -nt(a)- very, extremely
Privative -mašn- to undo Reverses a state or action. When used with the Causative, it means "to cause to not be/do something"
Necessitive -(y)yat- to be necessary
Continuative -xt- to continue
Cessative -kš- to cease Indicates the cessation of an action or state
Iterative -xr- to do several times
Reactive -knak- to do the same action back to another (e.g. she hit him back) This affix occurs only with semantically transitive verb roots
Excessive -(ha)pm(a)- very, extremely, too much

Applicative Affixes

The Applicative Affixes are used to change the argument structure of a clause by increasing its valency, or by changing an oblique NP to core status as an Absolutive argument. The process of using an Applicative affix is often called "Applicative Formation", although other linguists prefer to use the term "Applicative Voice". This article will use the term "Applicative Formation" to emphasize that the argument structure of the clause is being changed by use of the Applicative affix.

Case Role Affix
Dative -dut-

-utt-

Benefactive -rak-
Instrumental -mat-
Locative -n-

-naħk-

Commitative -ngar-
Ablative -raħk-
Malefactive -nusk-

Theme 2 Affixes

Theme Affix
Habitual -asm-
Inchoative -saxt-
Inceptive -nd-
Inverse Volitional -kah-
Partial Control -šk(e)-

The Verb Stem

Verb Root

Adverbial Affixes

Incorporated Noun

Restrictions on incorporated nouns: they can only be noun stems; case and other markers are not allowed. Morphophenemic operations may occur as a result of the incorporation process. These operations may be seen in the Phonology section.

Template:Minhast Prepronominal Affixes Template

Pronominal Affixes

The pronominal affixes present one of the greatest challenges to the students of the Minhast language due to their inherent complexity in structure and morphosyntax. These affixes serve important functions to the core arguments they coreference, such as indicating syntactic roles, gender, animacy, and number. These affixes, along with the role affixes, also serve to identify the verb as transitive or intransitive. For the transitive verb, the pronominal affixes present greater complexities than those of the intransitive verb - the transitive affixes, representing both the ergative and absolutive arguments of the clause, are portmanteau affixes; although some patterns can be discerned from this fusion of the segments representing the ergative and absolutive components, the transitive pronominal affixes are mostly irregular and have to be memorized individually. As expected, the affixes may change shape due to the sound changes created by adjacent morphemes. However, many of these sound changes deviate from the normal assimilation patterns described earlier in Chapter X "Phonology". The pronominal affixes distinguish three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. The neuters are further differentiated into animate and inanimate; the masculine and feminine genders are inherently animate and thus require no special marking. These affixes also indicate singular and plural numbers. Both the masculine and the feminine 3rd person plurals have merged into one common gender, while the gender for animate and inanimate neuter nouns are still distinguished.


Due to the complexity of the transitive pronominal affixes, their full forms are summarized in the next table:

Template:Minhast Portmanteau Pronominal Affixes1

Template:Minhast Portmanteau Pronominal Affixes2


In comparison to the transitive pronominal affixes, the affixes for the intransitive verb are much simpler. There forms are listed below in Table X:

Person Absolutive
1st Sg. -k-
2nd Sg. -ta-
3rd Masculine - Common Sg. -Ø-
3rd Feminine Sg. -l-
3rd Neuter Animate Sg. -Ø-, -š-
3rd Neuter Inanimate Sg. -m-
1st Plural Inclusive -hak
1st Pl Exclusive -mm-
2nd Pl. -tam-
3rd Common Pl. -km-
3rd Neut. Anim. Pl. -i-
3rd Neut. Inanim Pl. -mah-, -ma-



Tense-Aspect (TA) Affixes

Tense Affix Additional Notes
Remote Past -šar- The Remote Past usually encompasses periods of decades or longer
Past -ar-
Present -Ø- Also encompasses the immediate past.
Immediate Future -ne-, -nes-
Future -(a)satt-


Aspect Affix
Imperfect -(a)b-
Perfect -Ø-
Partial Completion -knakt-


A few additional comments need to be made about the tense and aspect markers. The Present Tense in combination with the Imperfect Aspect is commonly used as the "narrative tense" in both traditional oral literature, and modern literature involving poetry and fiction where the author wishes to convey a sense of intimacy and immediacy in a narrative. The Present Imperfect is also used in ordinary speech to describe an action that began in the past but nevertheless is still continuing, illustrated in such sentences as Tenkūr wandirahyilabu >> *tenkūr morning wa=ind-rahy-l-ab-u (CONN=INCEP-cry-DISTR-3SF-IMPF-TRANS), lit. "This morning she begins crying [still]". Minhast does have a Continuative affix -xt-, but it occurs in the Teme I slot. A different meaning would result if intervening affixes from the Theme I slot surfaced. For example, if the Theme I Iterative affix appeared after the Continuative affix, the resulting phrase Tenkūr waxtixrirahittarlabu >> *Tenkūr wa=xt-xr-rahy-tar-l-ab-u (CONN=INCEP-ITER-cry-DISTR-3SF-IMPF-TRANS) actually means "This morning she begins to continue to cry several times [still]." The latter sentence implies the act of crying occurred in discrete individual events since the start of crying. up until the present. The previous sentence, however, cannot be interpreted in that manner. This example shows that Minhast speakers consider time frames as relative to each other, as opposed to typical Indo-European languages that consider time as having discrete start and end point.

Post-TA Affixes

The Post-TA affixes serve to mark the verb's transitivity. The Detransitivizer combines with other affixes, such as the Reflexive, Reciprocal, and the Antipassive. It occurs oftentimes when NI has taken place, provided that the totality of the verb's valence operations did not promote a former Absolutive argument to Ergative case, which may happen if the Applicative affixes and/or the Causative surface, as in Redadde kaslub dutittaħšitipraru ("The man gave the dog some meat", lit: The man the dog he.meat.gave.towards).


Class Affix Notes
Detransitivizer -an-, -ēn-, -en + C- The latter two forms are non-pausal forms for when the preceding vowel is e or .
Otherwise, the combination -ean occurs if the verb is sentence-final and no other affix follows.
Transitivizer -u-
Antipassive -ampi-


Terminative Affixes

These occupy the final position of the verb complex. The most frequently encountered affix is the General Subordinative affix -mā.

Function Affix Notes
General Subordinative -mā

English translation: "then; that". This suffix is used primarily to link Sequential clauses.
It also interacts with other verbal affixes in clause combining operations to form conditionals,
complements, and other clause types.

Purposive -nimmā in order to
Direct Quotative -namā English: "Thus (x) says/said". Marks the following clause as direct speech.
Indirect Quotative -tamā English: "(s/he) said that". Marks the following clause as indirect speech.
Consequential Affix -dur-

-dūr-

Indicates the clause is a direct result of the preceding clause
Unexpected -kil- Indicates the verb is a sudden, unexpected event or state.
Unexpected Negative
Exclamatory Affix
-kilmakš- Indicates the verb is a sudden, unexpected event or state, with strong negative connotations or disapproval.
Unexpected Positive
Exclamatory Affix
-kilwāš- Indicates the verb is a sudden, unexpected event or state, with strong positive connotations or surprised delight
Irrealis Affix -š- This affix marks the VP as an unrealized and/or hypothetical state or event. In addition to its usage in

interrogative sentences, this affix, combined with the Consequential affix and certain sentential particles
to form hypothetical and conterfactual clauses. This affix tends to elide any consonant before it. The Irrealis
co-occurs with certain affixes, such as the Desiderative and allied forms, the Conative, the Inclinative, and the
Future tenses. It is also used in interrogative sentences and imperatives.

Nominalizer -(n)aft- The =naft form is used for Transitive verbs, otherwise =aft is used.


Particles

Existentials

Form Basic Past Tense Immediate Future Immediate Future
Positive matti min, mattim mattarim mattanem massatum
Negative hambin hambarin hambanem hambatine


Demonstratives

Minhast demonstrative pronouns make a four-way distinction. As attributives, they precede their heads, joined by the connective min to the NP they modify. They may also be cliticized after the NP they modify. The cliticized forms tend to be used in informal speech.

  Independent Attributive Clitic Comments
Absolutive Ergative Absolutive Ergative
Proximal sap sapte sapim, sap min =sap =sapte this one, near the speaker
Medio-proximal nax naxt(e) naxtim =nax =naxt(e) this/that one near the listener
Distal waššī wašt(e) waššim =waš =wašt(e) far from both speaker and listener
Invisible kiryit kirte kiryit min =kirit =kiryit

The personal deictic pronouns are portmanteaus of the interjective demonstrative particles, e.g. eyha (here is), plus the verbal pronominal absolutive affixes, with the exception of the second singular and third masculine singular forms, which appear to be from the clitic stative forms. Other forms are tāra (there next to you), and kāmu/aššak (over there, away from us). An Invisible form does not occur.

Person Proximal Medio-Proximal Distal
1st Sg. eyhak tārak kāmuk/aškak
2nd Sg. ettaħ tartaħ kamtaħ/aššaktaħ
3rd Masculine - Common Sg. ennu tārannu kannu/aššaknu
3rd Feminine Sg. eyhal tāral kāmul/aššakl
3rd Neuter Animate Sg. eyhaš tāraš kāmuš/aššakš
3rd Neuter Inanimate Sg. eyham tāram kāmum/aššakam
1st Plural Inclusive eħħak tarħak kāħmaku/aššaħkak
1st Pl Exclusive eyham tarħam kāħmam/aššaħkam
2nd Pl. ettam tartam kāmtam/aššaktam
3rd Common Pl. eyhakm tārakm kāmukm/aššakukm
3rd Neut. Anim. Pl. eyhi tāri kāmi/aššaki
3rd Neut. Inanim Pl. eyhammaħ tārammaħ kāmmaħ/aššakmaħ

Modals

Neutral Dubitative Translation
Independent Verbal Clitic Independent Verbal Clitic
Hearsay (wak)kaš =(n)niš (wat)tassumš =(š)šix it is said
Scriptive (was)suriš =ssumš (wat)tupiš =supnimaš it is written
Conjectural (wan)nay =sippaš (wayy)utaš =taš perhaps
Exclamatory ayye ayye "You don't say! Really!"

Morphosyntax

The implications of Minhast's polysyntheticity impacts on the language's syntax. It provides a wide range of grammatical tools that can make precise distinctions as well as provide the speaker numerous options for expressive effect and discourse.

Conjunctions and Connectives

Minhast has two classes of morphemes for joining two or more NPs into a larger phrase, one set being conjunctions, and another set called either ligatures or connectives which bind either mutually interdependent NPs (e.g. possessive phrases), or adjuncts to the nuclear clause. Most of the Minhast linguistic literature uses the latter term connectives, as in this article. The purpose of both conjunctions and connectives is to link two or more phrases together to form a cohesive unit. However, there are major differences between the two. Conjunctions simply link a series of NPs with no implication that the individual NP units are interdependent. The connectives, on the other hand, are required for interdependent NPs or other adjuncts (e.g. evidential particles), otherwise the phrase would be ungrammatical when the connective is omitted. An example would be a possessive construction; omission of the connective min render the sentence ungrammatical because two NPs, namely the possessor and possessum, are “stranded”, and a possessive relationship cannot be inferred from the stranded NPs.

Unlike many other languages, including English, Minhast has only a few conjunctions, and these join only NPs; they never join clauses, simply because the highly polysynthetic verb possesses a flexible, robust array of tools for joining clauses (e.g. pseudo-adverbial affixes, valence operators, the S/O pivot, verb serialization, nominalization, etc) to perform the operations that prototypical conjunctions do. Since the Minhast NP is barely developed compared to the VP, it is not surprising that there are few function particles available to the NP.

Conjunctions
Meaning Affix Additional Comments
and suttu/sut, =s + [NP]=suttu [additional comments]
or xan, xandaš [additional comments]


There are two major connectives. One binds only NPs together, while the other binds a NP or adjunct (e.g. evidentials) and a clause together. The first type of connective, called the min-connective, is used most notably for creating possessive phrases. The min-connective also performs other functions. The other is called the wa-connective and is used to bind adjuncts to clauses. The two connectives are described in further detail below.

In addition to creating possessive noun phrases, the other functions of min are demonstrated in the following table:

Min Constructions
Phrase Type Format Example and Translation
Possessive NPs NP[possessor] + min + NP[possessum] + GEN tazer min erakmast >> tazer min erak-mass=de (the birds' feathers)
Gentilic NPs NP=GENT + min + NP Canadastim rakne>> kanada=ast min rakne (Canadian tourists)
Cardinal Numeric NPs [Cardinal Number] + min + NP karum Canadast >> karun min kanad=ast (nine Canadians)
Ordinal Numeric NPs [Cardinal Number] + min + NP karnāxim Canadast >> karnāx min kanadast (the ninth Canadian)
Quantifier NPs [Quantifier] + min + NP wakkī min redad (some men)
Constituent NPs NP[constituent] + min + NP wakuk min hattewak =a ring made of/consisting of gold (wakuk=gold, hattewak=ring)
Demonstrative NPs [Deictic] + min + NP sapim redad >> sap=im redad >> sap min redad (this man)
Interrogative Partitive NPs [Interrogative Partitive] + min + NP adam redad >> adan min redad (which man)
Positive Existential NPs [Existential] + min + NP mattim redad >> matti min redad (there is a man/there are men)
Proper Names [Surname] + min + [Given Name] Uheyr min Iskarrit (Scarlett O'Hare)
Attributives NP+min+NP Birīħ min Hūr (Lion Mountain, The Mountain of Lions)


Min has several allomorphs. These forms are conditioned on by neighboring phonemes:

Allomorphs of min
Preceding Phoneme Final Form Notes
f,g,h,k,m,p,r,s, š,(w),y,z min
(V)V =m Long vowels are retracted to short vowels
b,d =mbin Preceding -b is metethasized, -d is elided
l,n =mmin Preceding -l, -n are elided


The Wa-Connective clitic appears either at the head of a clause, or at the end of a final clause, usually doubling any consonant that follows. The Wa-connective is therefore divided into two classes of constructions, based on the location of the particle in the sentential complex. The first classification is known as the Preposed Wa-Construction” in which the Wa= clitic appears at the head of a clause, and the second classification is called the Postposed Wa-Construction, because it appears in the final position of the last clause of a sentential complex. Their structures are therefore different, as illustrated in the following table:

Wa-Formation Constructions
Position Format
Preposed [Adjunct/NP] + wa=[Clause]
Postposed [Clause] + wa=[Adjunct/NP]


The Preposed Wa-Construction performs the following functions:

  1. To introduce a topic, e.g. Nammakt wassikkur asmurīyaku >> Nammakt wa=sikkur asm-rīyak-Ø-u, i.e. As for Namakt, he hates Sikkur.
  2. To bind evidential and modal particles to a clause, e.g. Kaš wassuyyeknapār harran >> Kaš wa=suyyekna=pār ha-ar-an, i.e. It is said, dubiously, that he came with good intentions (came with good intentions == came using a [good] heart).
  3. To bind existential particles to clauses for creating transitive clauses with an unknown agent, e.g. Matti waħħurkintesnattuš >> *Matti wa=ħurk-nten-satt-u=š, i.e. There is someone who will hurt you (lit: There is a who/something which will hurt you).
  4. To bind deixis adverbs to their head clause, e.g. Sappu wamminhast kirmennemu >> Sappu wa=Minhast kirim-ennem-u We speak Minhast here.
  5. To form the absolute negation structure with the negation particle hatā' and the verb of the bound clause in the negative (essentially creating a double negative), e.g. Hatā' watteškīkaš >> Hatā' wa=ta-eški-ek-an=š, i.e. I will absolutely not follow.
  6. To bind stranded nominals that arise due to verbal valence operations, especially when these operations would create double Dative (i.e. double indirect objects), which are ungrammatical in Minhast, e.g. Nismien wappiyānaran Anyar yakte raħkittekaru >> Nismien wa=piyān=aran Anyar yak=de rak-hitt-ek-ar-u → PN.ABS CONN=piano=DAT PN.ABS 1S=ERG BEN.APPL-give-3S.ABS+1S.ERG-PAST-TRANS, i.e. I gave on behalf of Anyar a piano to Nismien. Here, piyan is a direct object, but it is marked with the Dative clitic =aran because it is indefinite4, and Anyar is a derived Absolutive via AF using the Benefactive Applicative affix -rak-. The sentence *Nismien=aran piyān=aran Anyar yak=de rak-hitt-ek-ar-u is ungrammatical
  7. To create idiomatic expressions, e.g. Hambim bak uwašnaru5 >> hambin bak wa=ušn-ar-u, i.e. It is no business of yours...that he hit him (lit. There is no what [that] he hit him), Hambin wattahittahaš >> hambin wa=ta-hitt-tah-an=š, i.e It doesn't belong to you, it's not yours for the taking (lit. There is no and not you shall take).

The Postposed Wa-Construction performs the following functions:

  1. To mark the conclusive NP of a ditransitive clause, e.g. Išpiħyinnaru wakkarkarabawā >> šp-iħy-nn-ar-u wa=karkarabawā, i.e. We selected him as war captain (lit. we raised him high, a great water buffalo)
  2. To bind the preceding clause to the Reason particle mīn, e.g. Ušnekaru naħtaraban wammīn >> ušn-ek-ar-u naħt-ar-ab-an wa=mīn, i.e. I hit him - he was annoying, that's why
  3. To allow inversion of an Interrogative pronoun/particle to final position, e.g. Kalluttaharaš wabbāk? >> kallut-tah-ar-an=š wa=bāk? i.e You ate what?
  4. To provide an alternative to Preposed Wa- constructions in binding evidential and modal particles to their head clause, e.g. Suyyeknapār harran wattušmat >> Suyyekna=pār ha-ar-an wattušmat, i.e. He (supposedly) came with good intentions, it is said (came with good intentions == came using a [good] heart).
  5. Like Preposed-Wa structures, to bind deixis adverbs to their head clause, e.g. Minhast kirmennemu wassappu >> Minhast kirim-ennem-u wa=sappu, i.e. We speak Minhast here.

Although both the Preposed and Postposed-Wa structures bind adjuncts to clauses, an important determiner for the speaker in selecting which structure to use is the issue of scope. The Preposed-Wa structure has narrow scope, and governs only its adjunct and the clause immediately following it, whereas the Postposed-Wa structure has wide scope, governing not just its adjunct and the clause immediately preceding it; its scope governs all the clauses of a sentence. This difference is why the majority of evidential and modal particles are sentence-final; evidentials and modals are in the majority of cases used to cover the speaker's beliefs and attitudes and trustworthiness of the source, which applies to whole statements, but rarely for just individual segments of a given statement. Another important difference is that the Preposed-Wa structure can be preceded by a verb marked with =mā or other subordinating clitic. This means that the number of Preposed-Wa structures can occur for each and every clause in a sentence. Such is not the case with Postposed-Wa structures; only one Postposed-Wa structure can occur for a given sentence.

Degrees of Comparison

In contrast to many languages, particularly the Indo-European languages, Minhast does not have a specific nominal affix to mark a NP in comparison phrases. As an example, there is no equivalent to Englsh -er or -est which are attached to nouns. Before continuing on the structure of Minhast comparative and superlative structures, a set of definitions is required (taken from Carsten Becker's LCC4 presentation "Comparison in Ayeri):

  1. Comparee: The entity subject to comparison;
  2. Quality: The property being compared. In English, this is typically the base adjective, e.g. big, small, quick, slow, etc.
  3. Marker: Indicates the level of comparison. In English, this is typically the suffix -er attached to the adjective that serves as the Quality.
  4. Standard: The entity that is being compared to.

An example can be illustrated using the English sentence "The dog is bigger than the cat". Here, the Comparee is dog, because it is the entity being compared. The adjective big is the property that is used for implementing the comparison. The suffix -er, attached to the adjective big, is the Marker. Finally, the role of cat is that of the Standard; it is the entity that is being compared to.

To express the Comparative, Minhast employs a very different structure than English. Minhast uses a two-clause construction. The Comparee occurs in the first clause and is in the Absolutive, with the Standard either expressed as an oblique Dative argument. The verb for that clause is an intransitive stative verb. This verb serves as the Quality and is linked to the second clause with the General Subordinative clitic =mā. The second clause of the construction contains either the verb annuk-an (to have the greater portion) or isp-an (to have the lesser portion). This verb in the second clause serves as the Marker. To illustrate, the sentence Anyar Narramitaran šimūzabammā annukaban >> Anyar Narramit=aran šimūz-ab-an=mā annuk-ab-an (Anyar=ABS Narramit=DAT to.be.hungry-IMPF-INTRANS=SUBORD have.greater.share-IMPF-INTRANS.

An alternative construction exists that is also very common, wherein the Comparee appears as an Ergative argument and the Standard appears in the Absolutive. This construction usually occurs where previous clauses were coordinated with the S/O pivot and the speaker wishes to maintain the pivot. In this case both the stative verb and the comparison verb serving as the Marker for the Comparee are converted to derived transitive verbs by AF using either the the Dative applicative affix -dut- or Adversarial applicative -nusk-. The previous example can thus be reformulated thus: Anyarde Narramit duštimūzabumā dutannukabu >>*Anyar=de Narramit dut-šimūz-ab-u=mā dut-annuk-ab-u. Both the stative (Quality) verb and the Marker verb anuk-an are still semantically intransitive, nevertheless the surface structure resulting from these transformations by AF is still grammatically transitive. This structure allows the speaker to maintain Narramit as the Absolutive argument for both verbs. As a result, Narramit retains his status as the pivot in a multiclause sentence.

The formation of the Superlative is rather straightforward in Minhast. It is identical to the first version of the Comparative phrase structure, with the addition of dropping the Standard, as in Anyar šimūzabammā annukaban. The Dative oblique argument (Narramit) is simply dropped from the clause. If the Standard consisted of several entities, the Distributive affix is usually appended to both the Quality and the Marker verbs, as in the sentence Anyar redadaran sararampimā, paħpartarabammā annuktararan >> *Anyar redad=aran sar-ar-an-pi=mā, paħpār-tar-ab-an=mā annuk-tar-ar-an (Anyar.ABS men=DAT see-PAST-INTRANS-ANTI=SUBORD, to.be.tall-DISTR-IMPF-INTRANS), which literally means "Anyar saw some men, he was strong across (each one) ", he held the greater portion across (each one) ".

From the Minhast perspective, there is nothing remarkable about the structure of any of these sentences. They follow the standard rules of using an S/O pivot when co-reference between a PRO-dropped Absolutive argument must be maintained with that of the preceding clause. As far as Minhast is concerned, formation of a Comparative or Superlative phrase structure is simply another instance of valence operations that the language regularly employs. Thus, the Minhast structure for both Comparatives and Superlatives can be compared vis-a-vis English as follows:

  1. Comparee: The entity subject to comparison: may be in the Absolutive or the Ergative, dependent on the form needed to maintain the S/O pivot.
  2. Quality: The property being compared. In Minhast, this is typically a stative verb, called the Quality verb. It may retain its intransitive form, or a derived transitive verb may be created using the Dative or Adversarial applicative, dependent on the form needed to maintain the S/O pivot.
  3. Marker: A verb that indicates the level of comparison. As in the Quality verb, the Marker verb, either anuk- (having the greater portion) or isp- (having the lesser portion) may be promoted from an intransitive verb to a derived transitive with the Dative or Adversarial applicative affixes, dependent on the form needed to maintain the S/O pivot.
  4. Standard: The entity that is being compared to. This is either an oblique Dative argument, or a derived Absolutive argument using the proper Applicative affix via AF, dependent on the form needed to maintain the S/O pivot.

Word Order

Minhast as a whole tends to package the obligatory elements of clauses and sentences into a cohesive unit. Specifically, core NPs and the verbs they serve as arguments tend to be adjacent to each other. OBL arguments tend to be placed before the core NPs, so that unmarked word order is XSOV (where X stands for the OBL argument). This observation can be verified statistically by reviewing of the corpus of texts and spoken speech, and this observation holds for almost 60%, close to one standard deviation of all text and recorded speech sampled. XOSV order is the second most common arrangement found, accounting for close to 30% of all observations. Since the Ergative argument in transient clauses are highly salient, the XOSV order defocusses the Ergative (Agent) argument and emphasizes the Absolutive (Patient) argument. SOXV and SXOV orders are regarded as unusual, and OSXV and OXSV orders tend to make native speakers cringe, although they will concede that those arrangements are grammatical. These arrangements account for the remaining 10% of observations.

What is almost inviolable is the position of the verb, which prominently occurs in clause-final position. The main reason for this restriction is most likely because the verb, being extremely suffix-laden, includes clause-linking and coordinating affixes which occur in the Postverbal Clitics slot of the Minhast verb template. Thus, the verb serves as to mark clause boundaries and coordinate compound and complex sentences, hence the predominance of the verb's clause-final position. Nevertheless, verbs do occur in non-final position under the following circumstances:

  1. In simple sentences: the sentence Rassibararu Anyarde suharak >> rassibar-ar-u anyar=de suharak " (reach.for-PAST-TRANS [proper.noun]=ERG book) "Anyar reached for the book" is well-formed, even though the verb occurs in sentence-initial position. Here, the reaching for the book (rassibar) is being raised to a high saliency level.
  2. When the sentence (always either an independent sentence, or the final clause in a clause chain) is joined to a sentence-final adjunct by a Postposed-Wa Construction. The following sentence, containing a sequential clause followed by the final clause of the sentence is well-formed: Sayyumperan iknitaharammā, kalluttaharaš wabbāk? >> sayyumpe=aran ikn-tah-ar-an=mā, kallut-tah-ar-an=š wa=bāk ([proper.noun=DAT go-2S.ABS-PAST-INTRANS=SUB eat-2S-PAST-INTRANS=IRREAL CONN=what) "You went to Sayyumpe['s house] and ate what???". Please refer to the related section on Postposed-Wa constructions above.
  3. When followed by antitopics, often derogatory in nature, or interjections, e.g. Ussar tūmantirektaran hāran, kuhakna! >> ussar tūman-tirek=de=aran hā-ra-an ([proper.noun] house-3S.NEUT.ABS+1S.ERG=ERG=DAT come-PAST-TRANS, idiot) "Ussar came to my house, the fool!". Again, this can occur only if the clause is an independent sentence or the final clause in a clause chain.

Glossary

Abbreviation Meaning
C Single Consonant
C 1 C 2 Consonant Cluster, Non-geminate
CC Geminate Consonant
V Single Vowel
VV Long/Geminate Vowel
(V) Quiescent Vowel
PN Proper Noun
NP Noun Phrase
VP Verb Phrase
OBL Oblique argument
GENT Gentilic
AGT Agent
PT Patient
ERG Ergative
ABS Absolutive
DAT Dative
INSTR Instrumental
CONN Connective
NEG Negator
CAUS Causative
DISTR Distributive
PART Partitive
REFLX Reflexive
RECIP Reciprocal
NI Noun Incorporation
NP Noun Phrase
VP Verb Phrase
APPL Applicative (generic)
AF Applicative Formation
DAT.APPL Dative Applicative
BEN.APPL Benefactive Applicative
INSTR.APPL Instrumental Applicative
S Singular
P Plural
MASC Masculine
FEM Feminine
ANIM.NEUT Animate Neuter
INANIM.NEUT Inanimate Neuter
1P.INCL First Person Inclusive
1P.EXCL First Person Exclusive
REM.PAST Remote Past Tense
PAST Past Tense
PRES Present Tense
IMM.FUT Immediate Future Tense
FUT Future Tense
IMPF Imperfect Aspect
PERF Perfect Aspect
TRANS Transitive marker
INTRANS Intransitive marker
ANTI Antipassive
SUB General Subordinator
PURP Purposive
IRREAL Irrealis
NOMLZ Nominalizer

External Websites

The Minhast language is mirrored at these other sites

The Minhast Language Page: http://www.freewebs.com/nickcamporillo/
Minhast - Geopoeia: http://www.geopoeia.net/wiki/Minhast
Minhast - Frathwiki: http://www.frathwiki.com/minhast