Kusqaikama (鬥烏山, Хушӄайкама, Xuśqaĭkama) is a small island republic with just over 900,000 inhabitants in the middle of the Sea of Japan.
THIS PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION.
- 1 geography
- 2 demography
- 3 history
- 4 government and politics
- 5 culture
- 6 economy
- 7 education
(to be added)
(land forms, vegetation, land use, etc.)
The average January temperature varies from -2 to -12 °C; the average August temperature from 19 to 24 °C. Dominant wind direction in winter is from the north-east, in summer from the south-west. There are occasional typhoons, mostly in September.
Average annual rainfall is around 1000mm but varies a lot. Between half and two thirds falls in the period from June to September.
There are considerable differences between the northern and southern coasts and the inland region of Cekentyryŋ. In winter, the northern coast is colder than average and has more snow; in summer, the southern coast has (much) more rain than average. The mountains surrounding Cekentyryŋ have a moderating effect: less cold northerly wind in winter; less rain in summer; and more sunny days throughout the year.
- Main Article: Districts (Kĭuŋ) of Khusqaikama
Khusqaikama is divided into 11 districts called 'Kĭuŋ':
- Ŋiśriŋicyykĭyŋ (西二㞲郡)
- Niśkitanaĭkĭyŋ (鳬湖郡)
- Ammuusĭaamakĭuŋ (棡垚郡)
- Cattaƥuxasakĭuŋ (松島郡)
- Ammaƥuxasakĭuŋ (大島郡)
- Sĭemƥeikĭyŋ (千樺郡)
- Inaŋkĭyŋ (南郡)
- Akaŋqammaŋkamakĭuŋ (阿杭鵬山郡)
- Ŋiśricekentyryŋkĭyŋ (西黑水郡)
- Sikaścekentyryŋkĭyŋ (東黑水郡)
- Kĭeŋkĭyŋ (京郡)
On January 1, 2012 Khusqaikama had approximately 919,800 inhabitants. The vast majority of those are Khusqaians. Largest (self-identified) minorities are Russian (approximately 25,000), Chinese, Japanese, Philippine, Korean, Indian, and various Western (all less than 5,000). (There is also a sizable mixed population, mostly Russian-Khusqaian, but the majority of those self-identify as Khusqaian, and are therefore not distinguishable in official statistics.)
The average population density is 139.2 inh/km2.
(There are 5 more towns with populations between 10 and 30 thousand. All other towns and villages are (much) smaller.)
- Main Article: History of Khusqaikama
Khusqaikama has been inhabited since approximately 4000BCE. The first groups of settlers were Austronesian and Tungusic. In the 6th century the islands were 'discovered' and officially annexed by Silla (Korea), but remained more or less independent. The Koreans brought improvements of agriculture and Buddhism, which would radically change Khusqaian society. History after that is characterized by an alternation between periods of fighting tiny chiefdoms, and periods of unification. The last of these periods of unification ended not by disorder, but by annexation. This time by the Russians. After the Russians came the Japanese (in 1905), then the Soviets (the Russians again; in 1945). In 1991 the first free elections were held and the 'modern era' in Khusqaian history started.
government and politics
The Khusqaian parliament consists of two chambers, the 'lower house' 下會 (qaxŭei) and the 'upper house' 上會 (sĭaŋxŭei). The upper house cannot be disbanded, and the same is the case for the district councils 郡會 (kĭuŋ-xŭei or kĭuŋxŭöü). The lower house can in principle disband itself, but that has never happened. Consequently, Khusqaian elections follow a strict pattern from which no deviation is possible. This system has been in place since 1962, but since 1991 elections are free, while before that only members of the Communist Party of Khusqaikama (CPK) could be elected. Aside from that, very little changed.
The lower house is the legislative chamber and is elected every 4 years. There are 49 seats in the lower house.
The upper house only convenes to elect a government, to decide on a proposed change in the constitution after that change has been approved by the lower house (which happened last in 1993), and in case fundamental disagreement between government and lower house leads to a (near) crisis (which happens all too frequently). Every two years approximately half of the lower house is elected. Of that half two-thirds are elected per district (kĭuŋ), the other third directly (nationally). In addition to those two (almost) halves, there are 3 'special members', representatives of the Buddhist clergy, of the University of Qĭancĭeŋ, and of the judges' union. These last three are 'special' only in the way they are elected, not in their rights or duties as members of the upper house. The number of seats in the upper house is related to population size. Currently it is 123. (Before 1991 members of the upper house were (elected) representatives of Communist Party committees in factors, farming and fishing cooperatives, villages and neighborhoods, and so forth.)
The chairman of the upper house is president of the republic, but has effectively no other duties than chairing the occasional upper house meetings. The prime minister (like the rest of the cabinet and the president elected by the upper house) or a minister (usually the minister of foreign affairs) represents the country internationally.
The district councils are elected every four years. The councils elect mayors (usually from their midst).
In total, there are 4 elections in a 4-year period - one every year. The yearly election is always on the first Sunday of April. The 2011 election was for the lower house.
In practice, the executive level, either national government or locally, is always a coalition of several parties. The two largest parties are the Middle Path Party (MPP), a moderately conservative Buddhist party, and the Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), a moderate social-democratic party built out of the remains of the Communist Party of Khusqaikama. Most coalitions include(d) one or both of these parties.
- Politics of Khusqaikama
- Government of Khusqaikama
- Political Parties of Khusqaikama
- Elections in Khusqaikama
- 1962 reforms
Khusqaikama has a long history of moderate isolationism while seeking support from its strongest neighbor. That 'strongest neigbor' is currently Russia, although both Japan and China may be economically stronger (and China possibly also politically). The latter two countries are also more threatening, however. Japan does not officially recognize Khusqaikama, but considers it a Japanese prefecture under foreign occupation; and China has been trying to get more influence on Khusqaian politics since the 1950s. Currently both countries are major investors in the country, however, while Russian investments have nearly completely stopped.
The relations between Khusqaikama and most Western countries are troubled, occasionally even hostile. This is mostly due to Khusqaian reluctance to conform to international legal standards. There was, for example, until April 2013 no copyright law in Khusqaikama, and there is not a single law that applies to the internet. This has lead to economic sanctions by the US and the EU, but since trade with those is minimal anyway, the economic effect thereof is small. More important economic partners such as China and Russia, on the other hand, do not care about these legal issues, and Japan's refusal to officially recognize the country also implies that it cannot officially recognize these legal issues (because that would imply recognizing them as based on 'real' laws passed by a 'real' government, and thus implicitly recognize that government).
Attempting to break its isolation, and to learn from other small countries in similar positions (that is, other small economies with big neighbors), Khusqaikama became a founding member of the Exumbran Convention.
- Main Article: Khusqaian
Khusqaian is the language spoken in Khusqaikama. In Khusqaian, the name for the language is 鴈語 or Ӄйаӈкўоу (Qĭaŋkŭou). Khusqaian is generally considered a language isolate, but is sometimes classified or described as an Altaic language with an Austronesian substrate and a partially Chinese vocabulary.There are two forms of Khusqaian, literary and vernacular. Differences are phonological, phonotactical, grammatical, and lexical, but most differences are minor. Literary Khusqaian is the official language of Khusqaikama.
Khusqaian is an agglutinative language with a few remarkable grammatical phenomena. Firstly, it has a trigger case system, which prior to genetic evidence, was the main evidence for the (Proto-) Austronesian roots of some of the first settlers of the islands. Secondly, it has topic - comment structure (like Chinese and Japanese) rather than subject - predicate structure. Thirdly (like those same languages) it routinely eliminates arguments that are already clear given the context (but sometimes reintroduced them by means of topic marking).
- Main Article: Religion in Khusqaikama
About three-quarters of the Khusqaian population adheres to a variant of Buddhism, which was introduced in the country by Korean immigrants in the 6th century. Before the introduction of Buddhism, there was an indigenous religion, but this not exist anymore as an independent religion. Many key elements of that religion have been incorporated into Khusqaian Buddhism, however. Khusqaian Buddhism is a variety of Mahāyāna Buddhism with Indian, Chinese, and indigenous (non-Buddhist) influences. It deviates in important respects from the dominant currents of Buddhism in neighboring countries.
More recent immigrants brought various other religious but most of these were never successful outside the immigrant communities. Approximately 5% of the population is Christian, but a large share thereof are Russians or Western immigrants and temporary residents. Most of the remainder is non-religious.
art, literature, and music
The Khusqaian arts are heavily influenced by its neighbors. Khusqaian traditional painting is mostly bases on the Chinese style of landscape painting. Some modern painting, on the other hand, is more closely related to traditional calligraphy. Traditional music also underwent much Chinese, but probably even more Korean influence. Literature as an art form is mostly (but not completely) of more recent date and was based on Soviet models until the early 1990s. (Earlier literature was heavily based on Chinese models and often even in (a variant of) classical Chinese.)
- Main Article: Traditional music of Khusqaikama
(summary to be added)
Classical music is almost completely concentrated in the capital Qĭancĭeŋ. There is one professional symphony orchestra, and a small number of smaller ensembles. There are no composers of international fame. Perhaps most interesting are the few that attempted to mix Western classical with Khusqaian traditional music.
Khusqaian popular music is somewhat similar to the melodramatic songs made in Korea and Japan, but with a strong Russian influence, and sometimes Russian instrumentation. This kind of music is made everywhere, but in Ammuusĭaama the Russian influence is stronger, and songs sometimes even are in Russian.
To be distinguished from 'popular music', Khusqaian pop music is even more similar to what is produced in neighboring countries: catchy electronic melodies with danceable beats and somewhat childishly dressed young women or men singing about teenage love (etc.) in a mixture of Khusqaian and bad English, Japanese, or Korean, depending on the fashion of the day. Only very few groups are able to compete with American, Japanese, and Korean pop music, however.
Underground music is mostly from Ammuusĭaama and includes various kinds of extreme (heavy) metal, punk, noise, and electronic music. Jazz, especially its more free and/or experimental variants, is also strongest in Ammuusĭaama.
other performing arts
There is no theatrical tradition in Khusqaikama (unless strip clubs in Ammuusĭaama are classified as such). In contemporary art, the only performing art besides music is performance art. Like avant-garde music this is almost exclusively an Ammuusĭaaman affair.
(to be added)
There are a few popular sports in Khusqaikama, but Khusqaians do not excel in any of those, and consequently, have rarely won anything in international tournaments. The most popular sports (in random order) are:
- road cycling;
- gymnastics; and
- ŋärcaa wrestling.
The first three became popular under Russian influence, the fourth is a Khusqaian traditional sport. Ŋärcaa wrestling is a common village festival event, but also the only 'professional' sport in Khusqaikama. It is somewhat similar to other kinds of wrestling in the region (such as Mongolian wrestling or Japanese sumo) but also deviates from those in some respects, and as a result relatively disadvantages fat or big/long people (contrary to sumo).
The main spectator sport events are:
- the (yearly) national football/soccer finals;
- the (yearly) Tour of Khusqaikama, a 5-day bicycle race; and
- the (quarterly) ŋärcaa tournaments.
The early 1990s were a period of deep economic crisis, but since then the country has recovered a bit. The fishing and agricultural industries export to Japan, and the small metals industry to various neighboring countries. Since the late 1990s the internet industry is becoming more and more important, but is mostly controlled by organized crime. As as spin-off of that internet industry a growing ICT industry (programming, data entry and management, etc.) has developed.
see also: Khusqaikama since 1991.
transportation and communication
roads and private transportation
Few people in Khusqaikama could afford a car during the communist era and still the rate of car ownership is low. Aside from a few main roads most roads are hardly suitable for intensive car traffic. (The main map of Khusqaikama shows virtually all paved roads outside cities and towns.) The predominant means of private transportation (aside from walking) is the bicycle. Most cars on Khusqaian roads are either company-owned (and needed to carry out business) or buses used in the public transportation network.
During the Japanese occupation (1904-1945) railroads were built in Khusqaikama, and the island of Ammaƥuxasa was connected with the main island by means of a railroad bridge. Because the Japanese rail gauge differs from the Russian standard, after the war Russian material could not be used, and the Khusqaian railroads remained dependent on old Japanese engines and cars. Some second hand Japanese material was bought from the 1960s onwards, but only fairly recently newer (but still second-hand) engines and cars were purchased.
There are four express lines, shown in color on the railroad map on the right, and 5 local lines (the dashed black lines). Express trains only stop at the gray colored stations. Outside rush hour, frequency varies from every two hours for most local trains to every half hour for the red express line. The other three express lines run hourly. During rush hour a few extra local trains connect the main cities to their surrounding towns and villages.
bus and bus-boat
There is a dense bus network on the main island, although many buses run very infrequently. Every village is serviced by a bus at least once a day, and most (much) more often. Similarly, 'bus-boats' run between all inhabited islands, even the smallest ones, at least once a day. The only inhabited island that is not connected in the public transportation network is Tomosĭokura in the east because only monks and nuns live there and the monasteries arrange their own transportation.
airport and major harbors
Khusqaikama has only one international airport (in Ammuusĭaama), which also functions as military airport. (It is a former Soviet airbase.) Ammuusĭaama Airport is connected by daily flights to Vladivostok, Tokyo, Seoul, and Beijing, and less frequently to a few other cities. All of these flights are operated by foreign airline companies as there is no Khusqaian airline company. There is a charter helicopter company, however, that offers flights between cities and islands within Khusqaikama, but few people can afford its services.
Since the internet boom gave the economy of Ammuusĭaama a way to climb (at least a little bit) out of depression, high-speed internet connections have slowly become the standard in all the main cities, and are spreading to cover the rest of the country. ADSL is available everywhere, but the speed of data traffic still differs a lot between the urban centers and remote islands.
newspapers, radio, and TV
The largest newspaper of Khusqaikama is Aśxa (Ашха, 'morning'), published since 1947. Originally it was the newspaper of the Communist Party of Khusqaikama, but since 1992 it is independent. Since 1991, various other dailies have tried to compete with Aśxa, but usually only with limited success, and most of them ceased circulation within one or two years. There are a few regional newspapers, but those all appear weekly, or twice weekly.
The main radio and TV channels are state owned. There are two TV channels and 4 radio channels. Additionally, there are various private radio stations (because radio is not regulated amateur radio stations appear and disappear continuously), and a commercial TV channel that mostly broadcasts Korean and Japanese drama series and movies with Khusqaian subtitling, and occasional talk shows (and which is the most popular channel).
|main export products:|
|software and ICT services||East-Asia, Russia, Europe, US||(The latter two despite formal economic sanctions.)|
|fish and fish products||Japan, Russia|
|agricultural goods||Japan, Russia|
|small metal parts||Japan, Korea, China, Russia||Mainly car and machine parts.|
|main import products:|
|technological goods||Japan, China|
|raw metals||Russia, China|
(to be added)
The Khusqaian educational system is largely based on that of the Soviet Union, but underwent (mostly) small changes during the 1960s and 1990s. Education in Khusqaikama is divided into 4 levels:
- sĭi-xŭakkĭou (始學校) or sĭikĭöü : primary ('beginning') school, 4 years, compulsory, starting from the year after a child turns 4;
- ĭi-xŭakkĭou (乙學校) or ĭikĭöü : secondary school, 7 years, compulsory;
- koxŭakkĭou (高學校) or kokĭou: high school, 3 years;
- taxŭaq (大學): college / university.
Universities (taxŭaq) used to have two kinds of courses: short and long. The first were 3 years, the latter 5, and the first were technical or applied while the latter were more scientific. Since a reform in 1999, Khusqaian universities use the bachelor/master system. The bachelor level requires 3 years of education and can either be applied/technical or scientific/theoretical. With any kind of bachelor's degree, a student can enroll for a master's course, which takes - on average - another three years. Postgraduate education (to obtain a PhD degree) requires - also on average - three more years.
- University of Qĭancĭeŋ (UoQ, 鴈城大學, Qĭancĭeŋ Taxŭaq)
- Ammuusĭaama University of Industry (AUI, 棡垚產業大學, Ammuusĭaama Tĭaŋĭet Taxŭaq)
- Ammadocuu Institute of Maritime and Applied Science (AIMAS, 大港海應用學所, Ammadocuu Xraĭ-Ĭoŋĭoŋ-Xŭaq-Sŭou)