Marckonia (Karstonia) is a kingdom located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. The country borders Estonia and Latvia and is separated from Sweden and Finland by narrow sounds. In 1986, Marckonia was a founding member of the AGL.
Marckonia is a small country in the north of Europe, bordering to Estonia and Latvia and separated from Sweden and Finland by a narrow sound (Jorlandssundet and Finska viken). The landscape of Marckonia is a part of the Baltic lowlands and only in the middle and the west the land rises above 200 meter. Some hills rise here and there above 300 meter and the highest "mountain", Kyrkkanbjerg, has an altitude of 420 meter above sea-level. Two third of the country is covered by pine- and deciduous forest, there are about a thousand lakes, of which the largest is the lake of Petsamo (the lake of Riga not included). The coast in the north and west consists of hundreds of rocky islands and skerries, and in the south of islands of sand and limestone. Agriculture is to be found mainly in the western and southern part of Marckonia, while forestry and cattle-breeding dominates in the north.
The climate in Marckonia is, considering the high latitude, rather mild with higher temperatures both in winter and in summer as one could expect. The average temperature in january is -2oC and in july 18,5oC. Most of the country is covered with snow from december until april. The annual rainfall is 590 mm/year.
It was Tacitus who in his book "Germania" told about the islands in the north. However, in the first centuries Marckonia was inhabited by Fenno-ugrish tribes. First in the sixth century, German tribes settled in the country. The Marckar, driven out from their homeland (in what is now the middle part of Sweden) by the increasing power of the Svear, invaded the west and south of Marckonia and established several independent kingdoms.
Under pressure of Danish expansion in the Baltic area in the 12th century, Marckonia, recently christianized, developed into a more unified feudal society. The 13th century was a flourishing period with the foundation of new cities, the establishing of the Hanze-alliance and the conquest of Estonia by the Marckonian kings. The kingdom of Marckonia perished however in 1361 and until 1523 it fell under the Danish crown. After 1523 the country is several times divided by the neighbour-states, Sweden, Denmark and Poland, becomes later completely Swedish and after 1726 it is a Russian vasal-state with a certain amount of independence. This vasal-state encloses Marckonia, Estonia and Kurland. After a rebellion against the Russian regime Marckonia becomes a part of the Russian empire, between 1812 and 1917 as a grand duchy. The end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century is a period of both great misery and rapid industrialization. After the Russian revolution in 1917 Marckonia declares itself as an independent state. Social turmoil leads in 1937 to a coupe d´état bringing a half-fascist regime into power and Marckonia declares itself as an ally of Germany, and when Germany invades The Soviet-Union in 1941 Marckonia fights with Germany against the Soviet-Union. However, Marckonia capitulates in 1944 and is occupied by the Soviet-Union. After negotiations the Soviets withdraw in 1946. Marckonia is now a neutral state with friendly relations to the Soviet-Union. In 1986 Marckonia founds, together with some other nations, the AGL and in 1995 it becomes also a member-state of the European Union.
Population and language
The vast majority of the population of Marckonia speaks Marckonian (Karstonian) in daily life, a language closely related to Danish, Norwegian and Swedish. Until 1980 the population of the country was rather homogeneous, with two major groups, Marckonians and Galonians. Galonians, living in the northeast, speak a closely to Finnish and Estonian related language. Another minority are the Bellanders (speaking Bellandish) and the Livonians (speaking Livonian), living in the area along the Latvian border. Since 1980 the immigration to Marckonia has increased largely, especially from Eastern-Europe, Asia and Africa, and now the country has around 450.000 inhabitants born abroad. With this a new religion, islam, has come to Marckonia, although the most part of the population is a member of the evangelic-lutheran state-church.
Populationgrowth: 1 % (2016)
Av.life-exp.: mail 78,9 yr., femail 82 yr.
The five largest cities:
- Marckfontänn (454.300)
- Okthamna (285.600)
- Estilhamna (171.100)
- Eskunforssa (164.200)
- Petsamo (105.200)
Languages: Marckonian (Karstonian) (95%), Galonian (3%), Bellandish (2%), Livonian (some hundred)
Religion: Evangelic-Lutheran (36%), Catholic (4%), Moslem (5%), Russian-orthodox (3%), Jewish (0,5%), Other religions (3%), Non-religious (48,5%)
Universities: Marckfontänn (1630), Orested (1859), Okthamna (1924), Estilhamna (1961), Petsamo (1975), Eskunforssa (2001)
Marckonia is since 1917 a kingdom and a parliamentary democracy. An exception on this was the period between 1937 and 1944 when the country was ruled by a half-fascist regime after a coup d´ètat and the period between 1944 and 1946 (Soviet-occupation). The function of the king is since 1949 purely ceremonial. The position of the monarchy is disputed and several times efforts were made to establish a republic. In 1946 a referendum was held about the monarchy. The parliament (called Riksdag) has 320 members that are chosen every five years. One of these members is the chairman (chosen from the biggest political party in parliament) and of the 319 other seats, there are thirty seats reserved for the regional parties from the three autonomous regions Åland, Belland and Galonia. Since 2012 there are 6 parties in the parliament (and eight regional parties). The two main political parties are the social-democratic party and the liberal peoples party.
State of head: king Henrik-Otkar II af Jöhvas-Åsenborg (since 2007)
Representation: Riksdag (one-chamber-parliament)
Biggest political parties: social-democratic party, liberal peoples party, environmental party, middle-left party, christian-democratic party, nationalistic party
Prime-minister: Maria Wassiljevska (lib., since 2012)
Minister of Foreign Affairs: Hannes Bjurland
Once, agriculture and fishery were the most important sources of income for most people in Marckonia, but nowadays this has decreased to only one and a half percent of the population. Also fishery has decreased much during the last years and is hardly an important part of the economy anymore. Marckonia has a good infrastructure with railroads and motorways between the larger cities and connections by air with the rest of the world. The costs of maintaining this infrastructure are relatively high because of the low density of the population. During the last hundred years many Marckonians moved to the cities and the depopulation of the country-side is seen as a major problem.
GNP; € 111.532 million (2016)
per capita: € 35.230
Main exportproducts; chemicals and technological products, food, raw materials