Geography of Pannonia

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With an area of 4,077 square kilometers, Pannonia is one of the smallest countries in Europe. It is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Hungary lies to the north, Serbia to the southwest, and Romania to the south and east.

Mountains and plains

Pannonia consists almost entirely of mountains and hills. The largest part of the country is taken by the Pannonian Carpathians (Pannonische Karpaten), the most southwestern extension of the Carpathian Mountains. The Pannonian Carpathians, sometimes referred as the Pannonian Alps, are a high mountain range, bordering the Banat Mountains in Romania, which are considerably lower. Pannonia’s highest mountain is the Alban (2,644 m). Other high mountains in the Pannonian Carpathians are the Kraldara (2,611 m), the Arpadia (2,397 m) and the Mare Munte (2,388 m)

The southern part of Pannonia, south of the Lake Banat (Banatersee) consists of low mountains and hills, the Boden Mountains (Bodengebirge). This area has vast valleys and large areas of flat land. The highest point in the Boden Mountains is the Rabenberg (702 m).

The most western part of Pannonia, Trizemlje, is entirely flat. This is where the Pannonian Plain begins, which stretches further into Hungary and Serbia.

Rivers and lakes

Southern Pannonia is divided by the Lake Banat (Banatersee), a large lake with an area of 613 square kilometers, larger than the Balaton Lake and Lake Geneva. The western side of Lake Banat is in Pannonia, the eastern half in Romania. West of Stola the lake narrows and is almost a river, this part of the lake is called the Small Lake Banat (Kleine Banatersee).

Lake Banat’s main tributary is the Mureș river (Murech), which originates in the Eastern Carpathian Mountains in Romania. It feeds the Lake Banat and after the lake it flows further to the west, seperating the Pannonian Carpathians in the north from the Pannonian Plain in the south. It joins the Tisza river in Hungary just beyond the marches and meadows of Trizemlje.

Other rivers in Pannonia are the Golan, the Prinzesza, the Risz, the Ur and the Livichi, all originating in the Pannonian Carpathians.

Pannonia has many smaller lakes, mostly in the Pannonian Carpathians. About half of them are reservoirs with barrages for hydroelectric energy.