Dhaqan Languages

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The Dhaqan (or Dhatyan) languages (大蟬語系 Dha Qán Yǝ́ Hǝ in Tyannese) is a group of related languages spoken in Kwang Yung. Of the Dhaqan languages, the following are spoken today:

  • Tyannese (Tyannese: 蟬語 Qán Yǝ́), a Sinitic language with some other influences, and the official language of Kwang Yung;
  • Tongman (Tyannese: 東蛮語 Tong M̊án Yǝ́), which developed from a creole of Schelling-German and Old-Tyannese, and which has official status in the districts North and East;
  • Butyang (Tyannese: 普常語 Bú Qáng Yǝ́), a heterogeneous hybrid of Old-Tyannese, standard Tyannese, and Tongman with some influences from other languages, and the daily language of most people in Kwang Yung.

(introduction to be extended)



The following diagram graphically summarizes the historical development of the Dhaqan languages. Languages in gray cells are external influences, languages in yellow cells are historical Dhaqan languages, and those in orange cells are Dhaqan languages spoken today.

Bantu languages Tredh.png Tredvu.png Beijing Mandarin Tredh.png Treed.png Tyannese* Treeh.png Treevd.png
Tredv.png Treevau.png Treevad.png
Middle Mandarin Treeh.png Trehund.png Old Tyannese Treeh.png Treed.png Middle Tyannese Treeh.png Treeud.png Proto-Butyang Treeh.png Treeud.png Butyang
Treevad.png Treev.png Treevau.png
Schelling-German Treeh.png Treeu.png Ty/G Creole Treeh.png Treeu.png Tongman Treeh.png Treevu.png

Note (*): also "New", "Modern", or "Standard" Tyannese, in contexts where distinction from Old and Middle Tyannese is necessary. The term "Standard Tyannese" will be used here.

(Detailed textual explanation to be added.)

(Bantu influence: mainly Kongo and Mbundu.)

status and future


writing systems

Tongman is written in the Nagaskian Script. Tyannese is written in Chinese characters with a small number of particles and foreign names and loan words in Nagaskian script. In 1947, Kwang Yung adopted most, but not all, of the character simplifications adopted in Japan a year before (see [1] and [2]), although names tend to be written in traditional characters even if a simplified version is available (e.g. 寶 rather than 宝; Bháo). Butyang is a spoken language primarily. If written (for example, in Internet fora), it is written in a mixture of Chinese characters and Nagaskian script.

Although an official transliteration system exists, many names in Dhaqan languages are transliterated into English irregularly. For example, the q in "Dhaqan" and the ty in "Tyannese" represent the same sound. For more information about transliteration and the Dhaqan application of the Nagaskian script, see Dhaqan Phonology.


Referencearrow.png Main Article: Dhaqan Phonology


Referencearrow.png Main Article: Dhaqan Grammar

The Dhaqan languages are nearly isolating. Tongman has optional past tense marking, but aside from that, there is no real morphology. Tyannese has a system of noun classes with classifier particles (which could be considered morphological) that function as numeral classifiers, among others, but with a very small number of classes that seem more typical of Bantu languages than of Sinitic languages. Syntax, on the other hand, is rather similar to classical Chinese.