Chimor

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Chimor is a republic in the Pacific near South America. The archipelago was first inhabited by Polynesians, then by the 'Chimu' natives, and then by the Spanish. Since 1980 the country is independent. The capital is Lindavista. Chimor has over 12 million inhabitants. The land area is 128,200 square kilometers, so Chimor has approximately the same size as Greece, Cuba or the island of Java. Chimor is a so-called ataxunist state. Although many foreign states think differently, ataxunism is no socialism according to Chimor's government. However, there are many similarities to socialism, but there are free elections, individual freedom and respect for human rights.


República Ataxunista de Chimor
country in South America
Surface: 128,200 km²
Population: 12,803,000 (2012)
Population Density: 99.8 inh/km²

Capital: Lindavista
Government: presidential democracy
President: María Morillo Vargas


Flag:
float

Contents

History

Main Article: History of Chimor

It is commonly believed that the islands of Chimor have been populated by Polynesians from Easter Island around 1200 AD. Although the Polynesians must have had a fairly advanced civilization, there is little that still remains of these first settlers. Their culture, language and customs were lost by the arrival of the Chimu from South America. The Chimu were the original inhabitants of the Chimu empire, which was located on the South American continent at that time. After the Inca conquered the Chimu empire, a prominent part of the Chimu population fled to the archipelago. They created a new civilization. A number of settlements were created, especially on the island of Escondida, including the legendary city Xicaman. The Chimu king Ataxuna led a highly developed society that even in the western world hardly knew its equal.

Chimor was rediscovered in 1574 by Spanish explorer Juan Fernandez. It was not until 1630 that the islands were officially claimed by the Spaniards. The archipelago was named Islas Doradas (Golden Islands). The effect of colonization was that the original population was decimated by violence, conquest and disease. The Spanish colonial economy was based primarily on gold mining. In addition, large-scale sugarcane plantations were founded, because the climate was ideal for this.

Although most South American countries gained independence during the nineteenth century, Chimor was still a Spanish colony until the late twentieth century. On January 12, 1980, independence was proclaimed. The old name Islas Doradas, which was considered too colonial, was replaced by Chimor. This was a reference to the ancient kingdom of the Chimu.

Between 1980 and 1990 many weak coalition governments followed each other. There was constant fighting between the parties, and a government that existed longer than six months was a rarity. In 1983, Chile briefly occupied the island of Seca. This incident is known as the Seca war. By 1990, Chimor was still one of the poorest and underdeveloped countries in South America. On February 11, 1990, Antonio Parra Valdizan led a successful coup. A temporary government was formed based on Parra's ataxunism, with Parra as interim president. The majority of the people were enthusiastic, partly because Parra ended the power of the landlords. In 1991 the constitution was changed with the primary aim to form a solid base for the new state. In 1992 free elections were held, won by Parra. In 2007 the elections were won by opposition candidate Rosita Nergaard Charango. However, she was forced to resign because of abuse of power. Her position is now occupied by María Vargas Morillo, who is a member of the same party as Nergaard.

Demographics

Population

Chimor's population can be roughy divided into three ethnical groups: mestizos (62%), Indians (24%) and others (14%, mostly criollos). Nowadays, migration hardly plays a significant role. The majority of the population lives in cities. The population density is 95.6 inhabitants per km2. The population is not evenly distributed over the islands. The most sparsely populated island, apart from the uninhabited Isla Mono National Reserve, is Isla Seca. Chimor's inhabitants have access to excellent medical services with a high average life expectancy of 76.02 years.

Major cities (with population)

Languages

Chimor's official language is Spanish. In 1999, the Mochica language was officially recognized as second language. Mochica is still spoken by 8% of the people, especially in Escondida and Soledad. Mochica is a Chimu language and is totally different from other indigenous languages in western South America, like Quechua and Aymara. Mochica is an isolated language with no measurable relationship to other Indian languages​​. The Mochica had no script, but now the language is written in the Latin alphabet. Originally there were different Chimy languages, but Mochica, that was spoken in the northwest of Peru, was the most widespread. In the South American continent, the Mochica (or any other Chimu languages) are no longer spoken.

Religion

Church and state are separated in Chimor. The government does not interfere with the church. The majority of the population is Roman Catholic: 91%. There is a small minority of Protestants (2%), partly evangelist because of interference by North American preachers trying to get influence in Chimor. Their attempts of evangelization are strongly opposed by the government. About 7% of the population is non-religious, with a small minority of Polynesian origin who still use ancient rituals. Besides the official religion, shamanism is prevalent and popular among the people. So-called curanderos are often consulted to contact the dead or to treat incurable disease, like love problems.

Migration

Immigration

Immigration to Chimor plays no significant role. In recent years a new phenomenon is happening: western intellectuals are trying to gain Chimorese citizenship. Especially North-American and European hippies are trying to settle permanently in Chimor. Without success; immigration rules are very strict. The French writer and intellectual Charles Haussman is as one of the very few to obtain Chimorese citizenship. He is a great admirer of ataxunism and the achievements of the Chimorese state. He now lives with his wife Hélène Chevalier in Lindavista. Some say he only received the Chimorese nationality thanks to his friendship with Antonio Parra.

Emigration

It is obvious that high-skilled and successful Chimorese can earn much more money abroad. Chimor has excellent and free education for every resident. The temptation to leave the country after succeeding the free education is large. However, emigration is permitted but only possible under strict conditions. A potential emigrant must demonstrate why he wants to leave the country permanently. Many Chimorese avoid this lengthy procedure by simply travelling abroad (Chimorese citizens may travel abroad without special permission) and applying for asylum in another country. This is only honoured in few countries, including the USA. These economic refugees lose all their possessions in Chimor and will never be able to visit Chimor again. For that reason this form of emigration is rare, but it happens, especially among academics and artists. For example, the popular singer María Romero fled to the USA in 2005. She currently lives in Miami but will never be able to visit Chimor. Besides, most Chimorese see her as a traitor and her popularity has dropped dramatically.

Education, Science and Technology

Main Article: Education, Science and Technology in Chimor

Although Chimor suffered from poor education until the 1990's, is rapidly developing an excellent and free education system. Chimor is doing its best to cope with modern information technology. Computers are common but still very expensive for private use. Most households owns a mobile telephone, and every citizen can easily have access to the Internet.

Geography

Main Article: Geography of Chimor

Chimor is part of an oceanic mountain range in the middle of the Nazca Plate. Chimor is very mountainous. In general we find the highest mountains in the South, where the land relief gradually diminishes going North.

Climate

Main Article: Climate of Chimor

Although Chimor is mostly situated in the tropics, the climate is tempered by ocean currents. In general, Chimor is arid to semi-arid, but the southern parts receive more precipitation. Chimor has a spring-like climate without extremes.

Environment

Flora

Isla Seca consists largely of desert, but in the lower parts where precipitation is possible due to fog, some desert vegetation can survive. In the south of Isla Seca irrigation is used on a limited scale for wine making, olives and lemon trees.

The north of Isla Escondida is dominated by desert and steppe-like areas with low vegetation. The rest of Escondida, except the extreme south, consists of grasslands with scattered trees. Along the south coast of Escondida, on the peninsula of Amarilla and on the smaller islands, one can find tropical broadleaf forests.

In the past, Isla Soledad was largely covered with forests, but due to massive deforestation during the pre-Columbian times, little is left. Only in remote mountain areas, we find some larger forests. In the south of Soledad (Toromiro National Park) and on Isla Cañete (National Park Cañete), there are still untouched forests. These forests, which include large palm trees (Jubaea) and toromiro trees (Sophora toromiro), are considered to be a distinct ecoregion, the Rapa Nui Subtropical Broadleaf Forest Zone. In pre-columbian times, this kind of forest also existed on Easter Island (Rapa Nui) and on the small island Sala y Gomez. Nowadays, Rapa Nui Subtropical Broadleaf Forests can only be found in Chimor.

Fauna

In terms of native species Chimor somewhat resembles the western part of South America. On some smaller islands and on Isla Soledad, Dorada Tortoises (the government rather calls them Chimor Tortoises) exist, large tortoises that resemble the Galapagos tortoises. Their numbers have declined significantly, but in recent years their population is growing somewhat, especially in protected areas.

The Dorada Dragon (Chimor Dragon) resembles the Komodo dragon but is smaller. The Dorada Dragon used to live all over the archipelago. On the drier northern islands lived a related species (Seca Dragon) that had adapted to the desert climate, but this species is entirely extinct. The protected Dorada Dragon only lives in the Subtropical Broadleaf Forests. In these forests also lives the ocelot. In remote grasslands and mountain areas live cougars. In the rainforests of Isla Soledad and Isla Mono, different types of monkeys are present. Only on Isla Mono lives the Mochica ape, who is related to the pygmy marmoset (dwarf monkey) from the Amazon region. However, the Mochica ape is slightly smaller, making it the smallest species of monkey in the world.

Not native, but widely domesticated are llamas and alpacas.

Pollution

Main Article: Pollution in Chimor

Although Chimor has large natural reserves, there are some places which suffer from severe environmental problems. Emission regulations are not very strict, and clean energy sources are hardly used.

Economy

Main Article: Economy of Chimor

Chimor is a young and rapidly developing economy. Tourism is an important source of income. The standard of living is low, although there is no poverty as defined by the World Bank. The economy is largely controlled by the state. All mineral resources such as petroleum, iron and uranium are state property as a result of nationalization in the 1990's. It is not a planned economy like the former Soviet Union, because there is room for foreign investment and small-scale private enterprises. However, all key sectors such as infrastructure, energy, transport and postal services are state owned. On the other hand, foreign investment is encouraged, under attractive conditions but with strict regulations. Salaries are determined by the state, which collects the money from the foreign companies and pays it to the employees, according to Chimorese standards. About 71% of the workforce is public sector, against 28% private sector (including the employees of foreign investors). The share of the private sector is much higher than in most socialist countries.

Economic Facts

  • GDP: US$ 89 billion (2011)
  • Currency: Nuevo Dorado = € 0.29
  • Inflation: 2.6% (2009)
  • Unemployment: 0.5% (2009)
  • Labour force: agriculture and mining (17%), industry (22%), services (61%)
  • Exports: iron, uranium, gold, petroleum, natural gas, meats, fish, soy, coffee
  • Imports: technology products, machinery, food products
  • Main trading partners: EU, Japan, Canada, Venezuela, Cuba, Australia, Indonesia
  • Main companies: Tele-C (telecommunications), Petano (oil and gas), Cocachi (meat), Uchi (uranium), C-Turist (tourism), Air Dorada (aviation)

Agriculture, Fishery and Mining

Agriculture

Chimor focuses primarily on agricultural export crops such as fruits (tropical fruits and dried fruits), coffee and soy. The use of genetic manupilation is strictly prohibited, and pesticides are used with care. An increasing number of crops comes from organic farming. In combination with a sophisticated marketing campaign, this results in a growing popularity of Chimorese food products abroad. In addition, organic products from Chimor are cheaper because of the low wages.

One of the biggest success in recent years is the export of beef. Already in the colonial period, there were large haciendas for cattle and sheep. From the end of the 1990's, the government interferes in the cattle industry, with the goal to produce top quality meat. Chimorese beef is now even more popular than Argentine beef. Just like in Argentina, the main part of livestock consists of Aberdeen Angus and Hereford cattle. The cattle has plenty of space in the vast lush grasslands of Escondida and Soledad. The government is very alert in preventing the use of growth hormones. The meat is 100% natural. After slaughter, the meat is vacuum packed and shipped abroad, especially to Europe and Japan. It is not frozen. During the four to six weeks of transport, the meat is mature making it more tender.

A high-quality lamb is produced and exported as well. This comes mainly from the north of Escondida, where the cattle gets all the space for grazing. As with the beef, strict regulations are imposed tot keep the quality as high as possible. The result is that Chimorese lamb is popular with gourmets all over the world.

Fishery

Thanks to the Humboldt current, the waters around are Chimor extremely rich in fish. Ever since the colonial period, fishing is an important source of income. Although fishery still takes place on a small scale, large trawlers are becoming more important. These trawlers are sailing factories, directly processing and freezing the fisch, mainly for export. The fish is of excellent quality, but overfishing is becoming a problem. Organisations like Greenpeace are criticizing Chimor, and Chimor is under increasing international pressure to combat overfishing. However, this is hardly an issue in Chimor.

Mining

The main minerals of Chimor are petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, uranium and gold. Recently, the extraction of oil in the Lago de Tano make Chimor completely self-sufficient. Part of the oil is exported. The reserves of natural gas are mainly for export. The oil and gas reserves are substantial, but not inexhaustible. Iron ore is found near San Ysidro. Unfortunately this is accompanied by the widespread pollution. Near Cobija uranium is found. Although most uranium is exported, there were plans to use uranium for the first two Chimorese nuclear power plants in Santa Rosa, currently under construction. However, since the Fukushima-disaster, many Chimorese, including main political parties, oppose against nuclear energy. The newly-elected government (2012) decided to stop construction of the reactors. Since colonial times, gold is extracted from the hills north of Lindavista. In recent years the stock begins to shrink rapidly, and it becomes increasingly difficult to win gold. The majority is exported.

Trade Unions

Most workers are not members of a Trade Union for financial reasons; membership is considered to be too expensive. Certain groups such as miners are relatively often member of a Trade Union. Most miners from the uranium mines in Cobija are members because of the dangerous working conditions.

Energy

Chimor is blessed with vast resources of petroleum, natural gas and uranium. Electricity is mainly generated in the conventional way, with pollution as an inevitable result. Clean energy sources are rarely used, although some years ago an ambitious plan was emerged to provide all households with solar collectors. There is only limited use of hydropower, due to the lack of large rivers.

To reduce the emission of fossil fuels, but even more to provide energy for the rapidly growing industry, the government signed a contract with the Russian company Rosatom for the construction of two nuclear power plants in Santa Rosa, which are currently under construction. These modern PWR reactors were scheduled for 2017 (Santa Rosa 1) and 2018 (Santa Rosa 2). Until recently the government did not say from which country the technology originated. US-officials believed to have evidence that Chimor collaborated with Iran in constructing nuclear weapons. This worsened the already bad relationship with the USA (then under President Bush). However, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) examined the case and concluded there were no irregularities.

Although the supply of uranium is no problem - there are vast reserves in Chimor - critics have concerns about the safety, not only since the Fukushima disaster in Japan, but also because of the Russian (possibly outdated and unsafe Chernobyl-design) origin of the nuclear plants. After Fukushima there is a lot of discussion about nuclear energy. The new government (2012) decided to stop construction of the nuclear plants.

Infrastructure

Roads

The road network is not very dense in Chimor. In remote areas like Isla Seca there are still many unpaved roads. There are hardly any highways in Chimor. On the contrary, private car ownership is not affordable for most people. Therefore there are almost no traffic jams in Chimor outside the big cities. Moreover, the quality of the road network is reasonable.

Railways and bus lines

The railway network in Chimor is hardly developed. In 1927 the first railroad was completed between Lindavista and Ventura, with a total length of about 100 km. The intention was to expand this line to Santa Catarína, but this was never realized. However, in 1949 a second railroad was constructed between the mining town San Ysidro and the port of Puerto Naos. Initially this railway was used for passengers and freight, but now it is only used for freight. The construction of railways is very expensive for a relatively poor country like Chimor. Therefore, Chimor decided not to make investments in new railroads. Instead of this Chimor has a very well developed network of bus lines for the long distance. The buses are cheap, modern and comfortable, and much more flexible than trains.

Urban transport

Due to the high cost, Chimor had never developed rapid transit (like underground) lines in major cities. Also trams (streetcars) are missing, although in the first half of the 20th century there were trams in Lindavista. Instead of underground and trams, major cities have a highly efficient network of city buses. These buses run at high frequency. Especially for these buses, seperate bus lanes were constructed that are seperated from the regular lanes. Bus stations are modern and look like subway stations. Tickets are purchased in advance so the driver will not be bothered. In smaller towns and remote areas, urban transport is mainly operated by minivans. Although Chimor is a country in development, rich western countries may learn from Chimor’s cheap yet efficient public transport system.

Aviation

Air Dorada is the national airline of Chimor. It was founded in 1969 and was always property of the state. Most of the flights are domestic. Until recently, the fleet was small and outdated, and many aircrafts, including second-hand Boeing’s and even older Antonov’s, had a bad reputation. After the year 2000, this began to change, thanks to Air Dorada’s chief executive Patricia Madrileña González, who later became Minister. Gradually the outdated fleet is renewed, and Air Dorada begins to focus on commercial international aviation. Air Dorada, although a small player, is known internationally as cheap and reliable. The fleet currently comprises 27 aircraft, including six for international flights. Outdated aircraft is still used for domestic flights, but will be replaced with new efficient units of the Brazilian aircraft manufacturer Embraer. For international flights, six Boeing’s are in use. An order for an Airbus A330 is placed, and this unit will be delivered in 2013. From the international airport Isabel in Lindavista, regular lines are maintained with Lima, Mexico DF, Madrid, London, Paris and Toronto.

Governance

Politics

Main Article: Politics of Chimor

Chimor is a presidential democracy. The parliament consists of a so-called unicameral congress, which means that no separate parliament and senate exist, but that the state has chosen a simplified system. Chimor's parliament (Congreso) consists of 120 members. To be elected in the Congreso, a party should exceed a threshold of 10%.

Government

Main Article: Government of Chimor

President María Morillo was reelected in the presidential elections in June 2012. Her party Puro (the successor of Libertad) gained 20,7% of the votes, only a slight difference with number two and three, the environmentalist party Verde (20,6%) and the populist party Somos Chimor (20,3%). Ms. Morillo tried to form a coalition with Verde and Somos Chimor, the first time a coalition was formed since the ataxunist revolution. Coalitions were always unwanted because they were supposed to be weak, but with this tight election result ms. Morillo wanted to try a coalition. However, Somos Chimor was severely divided and left the coalition talks. As a result, Puro formed a coalition with Verde.

Major political parties

  • APRO (Ataxunist Progressive Party, Progressive)
  • PC (Partida Católica, Conservative Christian)
  • Puro ("Pure", Liberal)
  • Verde ("Green", Environmental Party)
  • Somos Chimor ("We are Chimor", Right-wing Populist Party)

Presidents

Since independence in 1980 Chimor was successively ruled by the following presidents:

  • Alberto de Loyola (1980-1982)
  • Miguel d'Onofrio (1982-1982)
  • Alberto de Loyola (1982-1983)
  • Augusto Pérez Vela (1983-1984)
  • Miguel d'Onofrio (1984-1985)
  • Abimael Schmeisser (1985-1986)
  • Nestór Americana (1986-1987)
  • Augusto Pérez Vela (1987-1989)
  • Fabio González Arrieta (1989-1989)
  • Omar López García (1989-1990)
  • Antonio Parra Valdizán (1990-1992)
  • Antonio Parra Valdizán (1992-1997)
  • Antonio Parra Valdizán (1997-2002)
  • Rosita Nergaard Charango (2007-2010)
  • María Morillo Vargas (2010-2012)
  • María Morillo Vargas (2012-....)

Administrative Division

Provinces of Chimor

Chimor is administratively divided into nine provinces. Each island (or islands) forms a province. The provinces are also divided into municipalities. Chimor is divided into the following provinces:

  • Cañete (133,310 inhabitants, capital Santa María Cañete)
  • Escondida (8,406,040 inhabitants, capital Lindavista)
  • Luna (123,650 inhabitants, capital Vista Flóres)
  • Nazca (88,900 inhabitants, capital Puerto Nazca)
  • Seca (256,740 inhabitants, capital Puerto Manzanilla)
  • Sol (89,900 inhabitants, capital Punta Alta)
  • Soledad (2,885,740 inhabitants, capital Platón)
  • Tortuga (172,200 inhabitants, capital Magdalena del Mar)
  • Yuma (93,900 inhabitants, capital Yuma)

Law and Justice

Main Article: Law and Justice in Chimor

Although several nations have the opinion that Chimorese justice is biased and influenced by communism, the outside world is generally positive. Chimor doesn't appear on the blacklist of Amnesty International. In the past, Chimor was often condemned by the United States for having a law system that was heavily influenced by ataxunism. In response, Chimor comdemned the "barbaric" death penalty in the USA, something that "civilized nations like Chimor didn't need".

Army

The army, the Guardia Nacional, plays an important role in Chimorese society. The army is closely allied to the police, and is also used for large-scale police actions. Soldiers enjoy a special status in society and get much better paid than workers. Apart from defending the country against enemies, the army maintains the ataxunist principles of Chimor. The armed forces consists of 60,000 troops. Just like the police, they have a strong presence on the street. It helps to reduce crime, terrorism and social unrest.

However, the army is poorly equipped. The Air Force is small, weak and outdated. The Navy owns only a dozen of old ships. Tactics are not among the strongest features of the army. Fortunately there is cooperation with other nations, e.g. the Armed Forces of Nicaragua. The aim is to focus more on tactics and to improve efficiency. To operate more efficiently, the army needs better finance, but the current government gives low priority to the army. Critics point out that the country must be able to defend itself against strong military powers with a potential risk, such as Chile. They are afraid of a second Seca War.

On the other hand, Chimor doesn't want to be an offensive force. It is targeting at the most efficient domestic defense, by deploying guerrilla tactics. Every Chimorese citizen (both men and women) must sooner or later serve the in military for a period of twelve months. Most of them choose to do that after high school, but it is possible to fulfill the service later. After military service, the ex-soldiers must be available in case of emergency, but this has never been necessary after the ataxunist coup.

Police

The Chimorese police is divided into three divisions: the Municipal Police (Policía Municipal) the State Police (Policía Estado) and the Secret Police (Agencia de Inteligencia, the Intelligence Service). Each municipality in Chimor has its own police force, except for municipalities are too small to have its own police force; they are controlled by the army (Guardia Nacional). During special events such as riots or major events, the police is assisted by the army. For nationwide affairs there is the State Police. Just like soldiers, police officers are paid relatively well.

Intelligence Service

The Agencia de Inteligencia (AI) is actually one of the three components of the Chimorese police. The intelligence service was set up after the Seca War, when Chimor encountered terrorism for the first time. The Intelligence Service focuses on internal security, but has contacts with foreign intelligence services, especially from countries that also suffer from terrorist organisations. Until now, the AI has had little success. Arresting the leaders of the terrorist movement AAC has always been difficult for the AI. Due to budget cuts, there are too little resources to act vigorously.

Terrorism

Main Article: Terrorism in Chimor

Chimor suffers to a certain extent from terrorism. Although the AAC-movement has been quiet for some years, it remains a constant threat.

Media

Television and radio

Chimor has two national television channels and three national radio stations. In addition, there are some local stations, especially in large cities. The use of satellite dishes are very popular.

Newspapers

The leading newspapers in Chimor are El Mundo, La Verdad, and Voz del Pacífico. The latter is the best selling newspaper, and publishes mainly popular and sensational news.

Press Freedom

Officially, Chimor has freedom of press. In practice however, censorship is sometimes used, albeit on a limited scale. Strong criticism towards government policies is permitted, however, criticism must be grounded and populist language and responding to gut feelings is not tolerated. In 2008, the popular newspaper Voz del Pacífico published an article which resulted in a diplomatic row with Chile. Besides, the article was not grounded and probably untrue. This kind of events are seized by the government to apply censorship to some extent.

International cooperation

  • United Nations (member since 1980)
  • IAEA (since 2009)
  • APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, member since 1998)
  • OAS (Organization of American States, member since 1981)
  • ALBA (Alternativa Bolivariana para los Pueblos de Nuestra América, member since 2006)
  • UNASUR (Union of South American Nations, member since its inception in 2008).
  • OPEC (member since 1993)
  • AGL (League of Geofictional Nations, member since 2008)

General facts

  • National Day: January 12th (Independence Day)
  • Population growth: 1.01% (2009)
  • Average life expectancy: 76.02 years
  • International code (00) 511
  • Dialing codes: Lindavista (10), Santa Catarina (20), Platon (60), El Centro (50), Angulema (80)
  • Internet code: .RC
  • Country Code: RC
  • Postal Codes: not in use
  • Time Zone: GMT -5
  • Anthem: Vámonos
  • Illiteracy Rate: about 1%

Famous persons

Main Article: List of famous persons of Chimor
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