Adzhatia (pronounced /ə'dʒeɪʃə/, occasionally /ə'dʒɑ:tiə/; Adzhatic: Аџаціа (cyrillic script) or Adźacia (latin script), pronounced /a'd͡ʑat͡sia/), officially the Adzhatian State (Adzhatic: Аџач Валтеціʀ (cyrillic script) or Adźać Valteciŕ (latin script)) is an insular country in Northern Europe, located on the Valya archipelago in the Barentzsea, north of Norway and Russia. The capital city is Ashtinok (Adzhatic: Аштінок or Aśtinok).
Adzhatia declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the Adzhatian Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic (A.A.S.S.R.) in 1990/1991 as part of the dissolution of the Soviet Union. After a de facto dictatorship headed by president Miheĺ Pjotarśŭn was ended in 2004 and subsequent experiments regarding its desired form of government, the country has been a parliamentary republic since 2006 with a president as its head of state and a prime minister as its head of government. Adzhatia aspires to join NATO and the European Union, but this seems unlikely to happen any time soon. It has however joined FICTS in 2008 and it took part in the founding of the FICTS successor organisation, the Forum for International Cooperation and Trade (FICT), in 2011, as well as the Exumbran Convention, in 2012.
Originating from the border area of the current states of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, the larger part of Adzhatian people were moved to the Valya archipelago in the first half of the 20th century to serve as a workforce. On Valya, they mingled with some small Finno-Ugric people who were already living there as well as Finns who were also transported there, causing many mainly administrative words to be added to the Adzhatic language.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography and climate
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Links
- Main Article: History of Adzhatia
Geography and climate
Adzhatia is formed by one large island (Valya) and several smaller islands (most of them east of the main island) in the Barentz Sea, north of Norway and the Kola peninsula of Russia. The capital Ashtinok is the northernmost capital of an independent political entity. The country has a tundra climate (ET) and while the days in the summer are extremely long, Adzhatia almost has no daylight in winter.
A mountain range (connected to the Scandinavian mountains) effectively splits the country in two parts. The higher parts of the country can be found in the north, in the districts of Śaińe Adźaciaisa Krais and Jantăsănkăm Krais. The country's highest point (with the uninspirational name Demokraciaisa Verkciŕ, the 'Mountain of Democracy') lies more to the south, on the border between the districts of Gĕĺa Koŕzăm Krais, Ĕnćeve Adźaciaisa Krais and Kerceze Krais. Adzhatia's longest river is the Taiś.
On 1 January 2019, Adzhatia had an estimated 713,465 inhabitants who had the Adzhatian nationality, consisting of ethnic Adzhatians (42%), Finno-Ugrians (39%), Russians (11%) and others (8%). Slightly more than half of the Adzhatians live in urban areas, with Ashtinok with almost 130,000 inhabitants being the most populated city. Other important cities or towns are Kercei (93,000), Kosegińdrăt (72,000), Ćŭŕdveź (70,000), Huśte (31,000), and Pruteilăć (30,000). The largest three of these are located in each other's vicinity, making it the 'beating heart' of Adzhatia. The town of Ćŭŕdveź is located on the second largest island of the Adzhatian archipelago.
In 2018, Adzhatia had a population growth rate of 0.84%. An average male Adzhatian becomes approximately 64.7 years old; a female 69.4. Adzhatia still has a rather youthful population, although the birth rate has been decreasing since 1990. 98.1% of the population is literate. Most of the Adzhatians speak and write the Adzhatic language in its latin or cyrillic version or both. Most of them are also fluent in Russian as a second language. About 30% speak one or more of the indigenous Finno-Ugric dialects like Tansa or Varula; those dialects rarely have a written tradition. 95% of the population is Russian Orthodox.
The capital of Ashtinok (Aśtinok, Аштінок) was known as Bazăŕ Gĕĺ (Базăʀ Гĕљ, the 'White City') from 1957 to 2011. In that year, the original name was restored. The name Ashtinok is probably derived from Tansa Aštin Ååke (Finnish Ahdin Aukea), meaning Ahti's Clearing.
Adzhatian education generally consists of primary, secundary and tertiary education. The primary and secundary schools have a combined duration of ten mandatory years, starting at the age of six. There are three directions one can take: the practical direction (Практіч Ошцу, six years primary, four years secundary), the middle direction (Жарз Ошцу, five years of each) and the scientific direction (Наукан Ошцу, four years primary, six years secundary). It is possible to switch between these directions and to add extra years at the end of both the primary and the secundary part of education. At the end of the primary education, this is mostly done on the advice of the school; in the event of a student having to little passing grades, he or she cannot continue with the secundary part without an extra year in the primary. (The same applies for the transition from the secundary to the tertiary education as well, but tertiary education is not mandatory.) In the scientific direction, it is common practice to voluntarily add two or three years to one's mandatory years of education and most lyceums offer the possibility to do this, often with specialised subjects that vary between respective lyceums. It is therefore not uncommon that students choose to continue their studies in another city in order to be able to follow the subjects they want, and many schools offer accomodation for this purpose.
Upon the successful termination of primary, secundary and tertiary education, the student receives an official certificate (diploma). After unsuccessfully ending secundary education, the student receives a certificate as well, indicating that the student failed to get a diploma, but containing a precise list of all the subjects he or she did pass.
In the larger cities, boys and girls usually follow separate education.
Tertiary or Higher education is voluntary, but many choose to continue anyway after successful termination of their secundary education. There are currently two universities in Adzhatia: the Technical University of Pruteilăć (founded in 1955) and the State University of Adzhatia (located in Ashtinok and founded in 2011). There are plans to create one more university. In addition to these, there are several colleges and academies where students who finished practical or middle secundary education can study a wide range of subjects, preparing them to work in e.g. hospitals, factories, the public office, the army etc.
- Main Article: Languages of Adzhatia
Culture and Religion
- Main Article: Culture and Religion of Adzhatia
Adzhatia has a number of public holidays that are recognised by the Adzhatian government. On these days, government offices, embassies as well as most businesses and shops are closed. If in a year the date of observance falls on a Sunday, this day is added to an employee's legal regular days off; the employee may then decide when (s)he observes that holiday.
- New Year holiday (Нăв Јĕжзжіш Вўхетціʀ / Năv Jĕźzźiś Vŭħetciŕ): 1-2 January
- Christmas (Гавĕсана Лікізжіш / Gavĕsana Likizźiś): 7-8 January (following the Julian calender)
- Women's Day (Врăнăм Лікісціʀ / Vrănăm Likisciŕ): 8 March
- Labour Day (Бĕzжіш Лікісціʀ / Bĕdzźiś Likisciŕ): 1 May
- Dawn of Democracy (Демокраціаіса Дагуʀціʀ / Demokraciaisa Daguŕciŕ): 14 June
- Day of Change and Progress (Швеівежіш ґă Провежіш Лікісціʀ / Śveiveźiś hă Proveźiś Likisciŕ): 7 November (originally the October Revolution Day)
- Main Article: Politics of Adzhatia
The State of Adzhatia is a parliamentary republic with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
The legislative is formed by the Dume (Dumća), which has 160 members. 115 members of the Dume are elected at least every four years by proportional representation. The other 45 are elected by means of a district system (Single Transferable Vote). After elections, a parliamentary majority is formed by political parties who are able to do so together. A government is formed based on this parliamentary majority, the prime minister normally originating from the largest party of the coalition.
The executive consists of the president and the government, the latter of which is headed by a prime minister. Since the president has a largely ceremonial function, the largest amount of political power is invested in the prime minister. Presidential elections are held every four years. As established in 2006, to become president of the Adzhatian State, the candidate must hold Adzhatian citizenship, be at least 35 years of age, and he/she must have been a resident of the Adzhatia for at least 75% of the years between the country's independence and the presidential election or be able to present significant evidence of Adzhatian ancestry (to be examined by the Constitutional Court), in which case the percentage mentioned drops to 50%.
The present judicial system of Adzhatia took its form after a series of changes to the constitution and other laws between 1991 and 2006. There are Courts of First Instance (Прање Інстанціаіса Ґове), a Court of Appeal (Апелаціан Ґофцу), a Supreme Court (Мапѳішт Ґофцу), and a Constitutional Court (Кенстітуціан Ґофцу). The Supreme Court is divided in a civil and a criminal section.
After gaining independence from the Soviet Union, Adzhatia established relations with other European countries and other countries that became independent from the Soviet Union. Under president Miheĺ Pjotarśŭn no significant effort was made to move towards integration in the European Union or NATO, as he kept the relations with Moscow relatively warm. Adzhatia did not however join the Commonwealth of Independent Nations (CIS); it applied for membership in 2008, but integration in CIS was never finalised. Adzhatia did join the United Nations and the Nordic Council in 2004, the Council of Europe followed in 2005, FICTS in 2008 (which was replaced by FICT in 2011) and the Exumbran Convention in 2012. Adzhatia is also a member state of the OSCE, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Adzhatia inherited a small part of the Soviet military force on its territory, equipped with a small nuclear weapons arsenal, including three nuclear submarines in the military harbour of Ćŭŕdveź. In May 1992, Adzhatia signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (Стратегічă Бĕлă Тапстануіш Сĕпіпцу, START) in which the country agreed to give up all nuclear weapons to Russia for disposal or dismantling, and to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state. Adzhatia ratified the treaty in 1993, and by 1995 the country became free of nuclear weapons. The three submarines were dismantled in Ćŭŕdveź, as the harbour's facilities were already sufficiently equipped for that purpose.
A large part of the conventional weaponry originating from the Soviet era remained in Adzhatia however. As there is far more weaponry than the current Adzhatian army needs, most of it was put in storage in the Adzhatian military bases, while parts of it were sold. Although Adzhatia signed the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which calls for reduction of tanks, artillery, and armoured vehicles, the Dume has yet to ratify it. Also, 1999 plans to convert the conscript-based military into a volunteer military are currently not under discussion.
The current Adzhatian army is largely made up of conscripts. The total number of personnel (including civilian workers) lies between 5000 and 6000. The largest branch is the Adzhatian Navy (Аџача Мŏруана Вĕвжіш, 50%), followed by the Adzhatian Air Force (Аџача Цхвасана Вĕвжіш, 30%) and the Adzhatian Ground Forces (Аџача Керросана Вĕвжіш, 20%). Women make around 15% of the armed forces; there are up to 4% female high officers.
Military Academies are located in Ćŭŕdveź and Kercei (Naval Academies), Kosegińdrăt (Air Force Academy) and Ħŭŕć (Ground Forces Academy). The Kercei Naval Academy is closely related to the military faculty of the Technical University of Pruteilăć. Since 2011, there is a National Defense Faculty at the Adzhatian State University in Ashtinok.
Adzhatia consists of twelve districts (краізж, sing. краіс) since the redivision of 1 September 2013. Before that, there were nine districts. These districts had official numbers that were used for all kinds of administrative functions, such as car number-plates. In the new division, these numbers have been abolished, although the car number-plate system continued to exist until the end of the then current series, which took place in 2016 or 2017; the new system isn't based on the districts anymore.
The division in districts is also used for a part of the parliamentary elections: 45 members of parliament (up from 27 members before the redivision) are elected for a four-year term by means of regional representation.
Each district has its own parliament and government, but the national government in Ashtinok normally makes the more important decisions. A district is lead by a governor (губернатоʀ), and he and the district ministers (маргуха міністеʀжіш, sing. indeterm. маргухʀ міністеʀ) form the district government. Although the district parliaments are normally elected every four years, the governor is appointed by the national minister of domestic affairs. The district ministers are appointed by the governor. A new district government has to be approved by the district parliament before it has its mandate, so in practice, the minister of domestic affairs can't just appoint as governor anyone he or she likes.
New district parliaments were elected at the end of August 2017.
Apart from the capital district, the districts used to be subdivided in municipalities (кунтж, sing. кунта), but they were abolished at the same moment as the district revision took place. To partly compensate for that, each city, town or village will get more to say on local matters.
|Latin name||Cyrillic name||English name||Capital (latin)||Capital (cyrillic)||Seats Dume||Inh. (2019)||Current governor|
|Kŏpunceźiś Krais||Кŏпунцежіш Краіс||Capital district||Aśtinok||Аштінок||7||129,202||Juvan Aćańuk (S)|
|Văŕtiaisa Krais||Вăʀтіаіса Краіс||Văŕtie District||Kosegińdrăt||Косегіњдрăт||5||86,503||Ĺŭdmiĺĺe Lacaŕ-Ozereź (S, f)|
|Ćandeisa Krais||Чандеіса Краіс||Ćande District||Huśte||Ґуште||3||53,498||Karoĺ Raikonen (S)|
|Kerceźiś Krais||Керцежіш Краіс||Kercei District||Kercei||Керцеі||7||124,846||Alikśia Cerćuvei (S)|
|Pruteźiś Krais||Прутежіш Краіс||Prutei District||Pruteilăć||Прутеілăч||3||50,383||Elene Śaporŏv-Maðiasśŭn (S, f)|
|Ŭceisa Krais||Ўцеіса Краіс||Ŭce District||Alidaŕ||Алідаʀ||3||40,046||Zăre Kapustin-Kośśeħei (S, f)|
|Śaiń Ćŭŕdveźiś Krais||Шаіњ Чўʀдвежіш Краіс||Northern Ćŭŕdvei Island District||Ćŭŕdvei||Чўʀдвеі||5||80,423||Nikola Tercvićei (A)|
|Drezeń Ćŭŕdveźiś Krais||Дрезењ Чўʀдвежіш Краіс||Southern Ćŭŕdvei Island District||Orvŭb||Орвўб||2||20,095||Śvein Kristofśŭn (Z)|
|Drezeń Valaźiś Krais||Дрезењ Валажіш Краіс||Southern Valya Island District||Barhveź||Барґвеж||2||28,514||Vladimiŕ Mŏsŏlŏv (S)|
|Ĕnćev Valaźiś Krais||Ĕнчев Валажіш Краіс||Western Valya Island District||Ħŭŕć||Хўʀч||4||54,484||Astrid Kŭćma (B, f)|
|Śaiń Valaźiś Krais||Шаіњ Валажіш Краіс||Northern Valya Island District||Ŏvanalăć||Ŏваналăч||2||22,100||Karoĺ Ĕvićek (Z)|
|Driă Sarăm Krais||Дріă Сарăм Краіс||District of the Three Islands||Takaĺ||Такаљ||2||23,371||Sardźia Kurcvek (S)|
The letters behind the district governors refer to the political parties they represent: A = AVŎD, B = Bloc-Ħĭnzei, S = Secializdźiś, and Z = Dzalităm Partića.
- Main Article: Economy of Adzhatia
Due to its location, only 16.4% of the Adzhatian economy consists of agriculture, the most part of which is reserved for cattle-breeding. Industry currently forms about 45.9% of the economy, down from 55% before the collapse of the Soviet Union; having decreased for a long time, it has been slightly growing again in the last couple of years. As a result, the most growing part of the economy is the service sector. Adzhatia's main export products are chemical products, refrigerators and fish, whereas oil, technological products, cars, provisions and raw materials are the most important import products.
In 2014, Adzhatia was one of the poorer European countries; the nominal GDP rate was $6,873 million according to that year's IMF list.
- GDP: $ 8,937 million (est. 2018), $ 12,527 per capita
- Currency: 1 Adzhatian Peka (AZP) = € 0.12
- Inflation: 1.19% (2018)
- Unemployment: 4.0% (2018)
- Labour force: agriculture 16.4%; industry 45.9%; services 37.7%
- Exports: chemical products, refrigerators, fish, ships
- Imports: oil, technological products, cars, provisions, raw materials
- Main trading partners: Russia, Norway, Yukland, Iceland, European Union, United States, Canada
- Main companies: Śŏdźak (whale processing), Kosegińdrădze Produkciaś (blast furnaces), Miheĺśŭńze Jan (refrigerators), Valteića Vervźiś (National Shipyards)